Bioschemas Samples Hackathon

Last week the Bioschemas Community hosted a workshop. The focus of the meeting was to get web resources describing biological samples to embed Schema.org mark up in their pages. The embedded mark up will enable the web resources to become more discoverable, and therefore the biological samples also. I was not able to attend the […]

Last week the Bioschemas Community hosted a workshop. The focus of the meeting was to get web resources describing biological samples to embed Schema.org mark up in their pages. The embedded mark up will enable the web resources to become more discoverable, and therefore the biological samples also.

I was not able to attend the event but Justin Clark-Casey has written this blog post summarising the event.

NAR Database Paper

The new year started with a new publication, an article in the 2018 NAR Database issue about the IUPHAR Guide to Pharmacology Database. Simon D. Harding, Joanna L. Sharman, Elena Faccenda, Chris Southan, Adam J. Pawson, Sam Ireland, Alasdair J. G. Gray, Liam Bruce, Stephen P. H. Alexander, Stephen Anderton, Clare Bryant, Anthony P. Davenport, […]

The new year started with a new publication, an article in the 2018 NAR Database issue about the IUPHAR Guide to Pharmacology Database.

  • Simon D. Harding, Joanna L. Sharman, Elena Faccenda, Chris Southan, Adam J. Pawson, Sam Ireland, Alasdair J. G. Gray, Liam Bruce, Stephen P. H. Alexander, Stephen Anderton, Clare Bryant, Anthony P. Davenport, Christian Doerig, Doriano Fabbro, Francesca Levi-Schaffer, Michael Spedding, Jamie A. Davies, and {NC-IUPHAR}. The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY in 2018: updates and expansion to encompass the new guide to IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY. Nucleic Acids Research, 46(D1):D1091-D1106, 2018. doi:10.1093/nar/gkx1121
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY (GtoPdb, www.guidetopharmacology.org) and its precursor IUPHAR-DB, have captured expert-curated interactions between targets and ligands from selected papers in pharmacology and drug discovery since 2003. This resource continues to be developed in conjunction with the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR) and the British Pharmacological Society (BPS). As previously described, our unique model of content selection and quality control is based on 96 target-class subcommittees comprising 512 scientists collaborating with in-house curators. This update describes content expansion, new features and interoperability improvements introduced in the 10 releases since August 2015. Our relationship matrix now describes ∼9000 ligands, ∼15 000 binding constants, ∼6000 papers and ∼1700 human proteins. As an important addition, we also introduce our newly funded project for the Guide to IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY (GtoImmuPdb, www.guidetoimmunopharmacology.org). This has been ‘forked’ from the well-established GtoPdb data model and expanded into new types of data related to the immune system and inflammatory processes. This includes new ligands, targets, pathways, cell types and diseases for which we are recruiting new IUPHAR expert committees. Designed as an immunopharmacological gateway, it also has an emphasis on potential therapeutic interventions.

    @Article{Harding2018-GTP,
    abstract = {The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY (GtoPdb, www.guidetopharmacology.org) and its precursor IUPHAR-DB, have captured expert-curated interactions between targets and ligands from selected papers in pharmacology and drug discovery since 2003. This resource continues to be developed in conjunction with the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR) and the British Pharmacological Society (BPS). As previously described, our unique model of content selection and quality control is based on 96 target-class subcommittees comprising 512 scientists collaborating with in-house curators. This update describes content expansion, new features and interoperability improvements introduced in the 10 releases since August 2015. Our relationship matrix now describes ∼9000 ligands, ∼15 000 binding constants, ∼6000 papers and ∼1700 human proteins. As an important addition, we also introduce our newly funded project for the Guide to IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY (GtoImmuPdb, www.guidetoimmunopharmacology.org). This has been ‘forked’ from the well-established GtoPdb data model and expanded into new types of data related to the immune system and inflammatory processes. This includes new ligands, targets, pathways, cell types and diseases for which we are recruiting new IUPHAR expert committees. Designed as an immunopharmacological gateway, it also has an emphasis on potential therapeutic interventions.},
    author = {Harding, Simon D and Sharman, Joanna L and Faccenda, Elena and Southan, Chris and Pawson, Adam J and Ireland, Sam and Gray, Alasdair J G and Bruce, Liam and Alexander, Stephen P H and Anderton, Stephen and Bryant, Clare and Davenport, Anthony P and Doerig, Christian and Fabbro, Doriano and Levi-Schaffer, Francesca and Spedding, Michael and Davies, Jamie A and , {NC-IUPHAR}},
    title = {The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY in 2018: updates and expansion to encompass the new guide to IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY},
    journal = {Nucleic Acids Research},
    year = {2018},
    volume = {46},
    number = {D1},
    pages = {D1091-D1106},
    month = jan,
    OPTnote = {},
    OPTannote = {},
    url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkx1121},
    doi = {10.1093/nar/gkx1121}
    }

My involvement came from Liam Bruce’s honours project. Liam developed the RDB2RDF mappings that convert the existing relational content into an RDF representation. The mappings are executed using the Morph-RDB R2RML engine.

To ensure that we abide by the FAIR data principles, we also generate machine processable metadata descriptions of the data that conform to the HCLS Community Profile.

Below is an altmetric donut so you can see what people are saying about the paper.

ISWC2017 Papers

I have had two papers accepted within the events that make up ISWC2017. My PhD student Qianru Zhou has been working on using RDF stream processing to detect anomalous events through telecommunication network messages. The particular scenario in our paper that will be presented at the Web Stream Processing workshop focuses on detecting a disaster such as […]

I have had two papers accepted within the events that make up ISWC2017.

My PhD student Qianru Zhou has been working on using RDF stream processing to detect anomalous events through telecommunication network messages. The particular scenario in our paper that will be presented at the Web Stream Processing workshop focuses on detecting a disaster such as the capsizing of the Eastern Star on the Yangtze River [1].

The second paper is a poster in the main conference that provides an overview of the Bioschemas project where we are identifying the Schema.org markup that is of primary importance for life science resources. Hopefully the paper title will pull the punters in for the session [2].

[1] Qianru Zhou, Stephen McLaughlin, Alasdair J. G. Gray, Shangbin Wu, and Chengxiang Wang. Lost Silence: An emergency response early detection service through continuous processing of telecommunication data streams. In Web Stream Processing 2017, 2017.
[Bibtex]
@InProceedings{ZhouEtal2017:LostSilence:WSP2017,
abstract = {Early detection of significant traumatic events, e.g. terrorist events, ship capsizes, is important to ensure that a prompt emergency response can occur. In the modern world telecommunication systems can and do play a key role in ensuring a successful emergency response by detecting such incidents through significant changes in calls and access to the networks. In this paper a methodology is illustrated to detect such incidents immediately (with the delay in the order of milliseconds), by processing semantically annotated streams of data in cellular telecommunication systems. In our methodology, live information of phones' positions and status are encoded as RDF streams. We propose an algorithm that processes streams of RDF annotated telecommunication data to detect abnormality. Our approach is exemplified in the context of capsize of a passenger cruise ship but is readily translatable to other incidents. Our evaluation results show that with properly chosen window size, such incidents can be detected effectively.},
author = {Qianru Zhou and Stephen McLaughlin and Alasdair J G Gray and Shangbin Wu and Chengxiang Wang},
title = {Lost Silence: An emergency response early detection service through continuous processing of telecommunication data streams},
OPTcrossref = {},
OPTkey = {},
booktitle = {Web Stream Processing 2017},
year = {2017},
OPTeditor = {},
OPTvolume = {},
OPTnumber = {},
OPTseries = {},
OPTpages = {},
OPTmonth = {},
OPTaddress = {},
OPTorganization = {},
OPTpublisher = {},
OPTnote = {},
OPTannote = {}
}
[2] Alasdair J. G. Gray, Carole Goble, Rafael C. Jimenez, and The Bioschemas Community. Bioschemas: From Potato Salad to Protein Annotation. In ISWC 2017 Poster Proceedings, Vienna, Austria, 2017. Poster
[Bibtex]
@InProceedings{grayetal2017:bioschemas:iswc2017,
abstract = {The life sciences have a wealth of data resources with a wide range of overlapping content. Key repositories, such as UniProt for protein data or Entrez Gene for gene data, are well known and their content easily discovered through search engines. However, there is a long-tail of bespoke datasets with important content that are not so prominent in search results. Building on the success of Schema.org for making a wide range of structured web content more discoverable and interpretable, e.g. food recipes, the Bioschemas community (http://bioschemas.org) aim to make life sciences datasets more findable by encouraging data providers to embed Schema.org markup in their resources.},
author = {Alasdair J G Gray and Carole Goble and Rafael C Jimenez and {The Bioschemas Community}},
title = {Bioschemas: From Potato Salad to Protein Annotation},
OPTcrossref = {},
OPTkey = {},
booktitle = {ISWC 2017 Poster Proceedings},
year = {2017},
OPTeditor = {},
OPTvolume = {},
OPTnumber = {},
OPTseries = {},
OPTpages = {},
OPTmonth = {},
address = {Vienna, Austria},
OPTorganization = {},
OPTpublisher = {},
note = {Poster},
OPTannote = {}
}

ISWC2017 Papers

I have had two papers accepted within the events that make up ISWC2017. My PhD student Qianru Zhou has been working on using RDF stream processing to detect anomalous events through telecommunication network messages. The particular scenario in our paper that will be presented at the Web Stream Processing workshop focuses on detecting a disaster such as […]

I have had two papers accepted within the events that make up ISWC2017.

My PhD student Qianru Zhou has been working on using RDF stream processing to detect anomalous events through telecommunication network messages. The particular scenario in our paper that will be presented at the Web Stream Processing workshop focuses on detecting a disaster such as the capsizing of the Eastern Star on the Yangtze River [1].

The second paper is a poster in the main conference that provides an overview of the Bioschemas project where we are identifying the Schema.org markup that is of primary importance for life science resources. Hopefully the paper title will pull the punters in for the session [2].

[1] Qianru Zhou, Stephen McLaughlin, Alasdair J. G. Gray, Shangbin Wu, and Chengxiang Wang. Lost Silence: An emergency response early detection service through continuous processing of telecommunication data streams. In Web Stream Processing 2017, 2017.
[Bibtex]
@InProceedings{ZhouEtal2017:LostSilence:WSP2017,
abstract = {Early detection of significant traumatic events, e.g. terrorist events, ship capsizes, is important to ensure that a prompt emergency response can occur. In the modern world telecommunication systems can and do play a key role in ensuring a successful emergency response by detecting such incidents through significant changes in calls and access to the networks. In this paper a methodology is illustrated to detect such incidents immediately (with the delay in the order of milliseconds), by processing semantically annotated streams of data in cellular telecommunication systems. In our methodology, live information of phones' positions and status are encoded as RDF streams. We propose an algorithm that processes streams of RDF annotated telecommunication data to detect abnormality. Our approach is exemplified in the context of capsize of a passenger cruise ship but is readily translatable to other incidents. Our evaluation results show that with properly chosen window size, such incidents can be detected effectively.},
author = {Qianru Zhou and Stephen McLaughlin and Alasdair J G Gray and Shangbin Wu and Chengxiang Wang},
title = {Lost Silence: An emergency response early detection service through continuous processing of telecommunication data streams},
OPTcrossref = {},
OPTkey = {},
booktitle = {Web Stream Processing 2017},
year = {2017},
OPTeditor = {},
OPTvolume = {},
OPTnumber = {},
OPTseries = {},
OPTpages = {},
OPTmonth = {},
OPTaddress = {},
OPTorganization = {},
OPTpublisher = {},
OPTnote = {},
OPTannote = {}
}
[2] Alasdair J. G. Gray, Carole Goble, Rafael C. Jimenez, and The Bioschemas Community. Bioschemas: From Potato Salad to Protein Annotation. In ISWC 2017 Poster Proceedings, Vienna, Austria, 2017. Poster
[Bibtex]
@InProceedings{grayetal2017:bioschemas:iswc2017,
abstract = {The life sciences have a wealth of data resources with a wide range of overlapping content. Key repositories, such as UniProt for protein data or Entrez Gene for gene data, are well known and their content easily discovered through search engines. However, there is a long-tail of bespoke datasets with important content that are not so prominent in search results. Building on the success of Schema.org for making a wide range of structured web content more discoverable and interpretable, e.g. food recipes, the Bioschemas community (http://bioschemas.org) aim to make life sciences datasets more findable by encouraging data providers to embed Schema.org markup in their resources.},
author = {Alasdair J G Gray and Carole Goble and Rafael C Jimenez and {The Bioschemas Community}},
title = {Bioschemas: From Potato Salad to Protein Annotation},
OPTcrossref = {},
OPTkey = {},
booktitle = {ISWC 2017 Poster Proceedings},
year = {2017},
OPTeditor = {},
OPTvolume = {},
OPTnumber = {},
OPTseries = {},
OPTpages = {},
OPTmonth = {},
address = {Vienna, Austria},
OPTorganization = {},
OPTpublisher = {},
note = {Poster},
OPTannote = {}
}

SICSA Digital Humanities Event

On 24 August I attended the SICSA Digital Humanities event hosted at Strathclyde University. The event was organised by Martin Halvey and Frank Hopfgartner. The event brought together cultural heritage practitioners, and researchers from the humanities and computer science. The day started off with a keynote from Lorna Hughes, Professor of Digital Humanities at the […]

On 24 August I attended the SICSA Digital Humanities event hosted at Strathclyde University. The event was organised by Martin Halvey and Frank Hopfgartner. The event brought together cultural heritage practitioners, and researchers from the humanities and computer science.

The day started off with a keynote from Lorna Hughes, Professor of Digital Humanities at the University of Glasgow. She highlighted that there is not a single definition for digital humanities (weblink presents a random definition from a set collected at another event). However, at the core, digital humanities consists of:

  • Digital content
  • Digital methods
  • Tools

The purpose of digitial humanities is to enable better and/or faster outputs as well as conceptualising new research questions.

Lorna showcased several projects that she has been involved with highlighting the issues that were faced before identifying a set of lessons learned and challenges going forward (see her blog and slideshare). She highlighted that only about 10% of content has been transformed into a digital form, and of that only 3% is openly available. Additionally, some artefacts have been digitised in multiple ways at different time points, and the differences in these digital forms tells a story about the object.

Lorna highlighted the following challenges:

  • Enabling better understanding of digital content
  • Developing underlying digital infrastructure
  • Supporting the use of open content
  • Enabling the community
  • Working with born-digital content.

The second part of the day saw us brainstorming ideas in groups. Two potential apps were outlined to support the public get more out of the cultural heritage environment around us.

An interesting panel discussion was had, focused around what you would do with a mythical £350m. It also involved locking up 3D scanners, at least until appropriate methodology and metadata was made available.

The day finished off with an interesting keynote from Daniela Petrelli, Sheffield Hallam University. This was an interesting talk focussing on the outputs of the EU meSch project. A holistic design approach on the visitor experience was proposed that encompassed interaction design, product design, and content design. See the below embedded video for an idea.

Summary

There are lots of opportunities for collaboration between digital humanities and computing. From my perspective, there are lots of interesting challenges around capturing data metadata, linking between datasets, and capturing provenance of workflows.

Throughout the day, various participants were tweeting with the #dhfest hashtag.

DUCS not LOD

The follow is an excerpt from a blog by Keir Winesmith, Head of Digital at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (@SFMOMAlab) Linked Open Data may sound good and noble, but it’s the wrong way around. It is a truth universally acknowledged, that an organization in possession of good Data, must want it Open (and […]

The follow is an excerpt from a blog by Keir Winesmith, Head of Digital at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (@SFMOMAlab)

Linked Open Data may sound good and noble, but it’s the wrong way around. It is a truth universally acknowledged, that an organization in possession of good Data, must want it Open (and indeed, Linked).

Well, I call bullshit. Most cultural heritage organizations (like most organizations) are terrible at data. And most of those who are good at collecting it, very rarely use it effectively or strategically.

Instead of Linked Open Data (LOD), Keir argues for DUCS:

I propose an alternative anagram, and an alternative order of importance.

  • D. Data. Step one, collect the data that is most likely to help you and your organization make better decisions in the future. For example collection breadth, depth, accuracy, completeness, diversity, and relationships between objects and creators.
  • U. Utilise. Actually use the data to inform your decisions, and test your hypotheses, within the bounds of your mission.
  • C. Context. Provide context for your data, both internally and externally. What’s inside? How is represented? How complete is it? How accurate? How current? How was it gathered?
  • S. Share. Now you’re ready to share it! Share it with context. Share it with the communities that are included in it first, follow the cultural heritage strategy of “nothing about me, without me”. Reach out to the relevant students, scholars, teachers, artists, designers, anthropologists, technologists, and whomever could use it. Get behind it and keep it up to date.

I’m against LOD, if it doesn’t follow DUCS first.

If you’re going to do it, do it right.

Source: Against Linked Open Data – Keir Winesmith – Medium

BTL Surpass for online assessment in Computer Science

Over the last couple of years I have been leading the introduction of BTL’s Surpass online assessment platform for  exams in Computer Science. I posted the requirements for an online exam system we agreed on a few months ago. I have now written up an evaluation case study: Use of BTL Surpass for online exams in Computer … Continue reading BTL Surpass for online assessment in Computer Science

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Over the last couple of years I have been leading the introduction of BTL’s Surpass online assessment platform for  exams in Computer Science. I posted the requirements for an online exam system we agreed on a few months ago. I have now written up an evaluation case study: Use of BTL Surpass for online exams in Computer Science, an LTDI report (local copy). TL;DR: nothing is perfect, but Surpass did what we hoped, and it is planned to continue & expand its use.

My colleagues Hans-Wofgang has also presented on our experiences of “Enhancing the Learning Experience on Programming-focused Courses via Electronic Assessment Tools” at the Trends in Functional Programming in Education Conference, Canterbury, 19-21. This paper includes work by Sanusi Usman on using Surpass for formative assessment.

A question for online exams in computer science showing few lines of JAVA code with gaps for the student to complete.
A fill the blanks style question for online exams in computer coding. (Not from a real exam!)

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Quick notes: Naomi Korn on copyright and educational resources

I gate-crashed a lecture on copyright that Naomi Korn gave at Edinburgh University. I’ve had an interest in copyright for as long as I have been working with open access and open educational resources, about ten years. I think I understand the basic concepts pretty well, but even so Naomi managed to catch a couple … Continue reading Quick notes: Naomi Korn on copyright and educational resources

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I gate-crashed a lecture on copyright that Naomi Korn gave at Edinburgh University. I’ve had an interest in copyright for as long as I have been working with open access and open educational resources, about ten years. I think I understand the basic concepts pretty well, but even so Naomi managed to catch a couple of misconceptions I held and also crystallised some ideas with well chosen examples.

hand drawn copyright symbol and word 'copyright' in cursive script.
from naomikorn.com

First, quick intro to Naomi. Naomi is a copyright consultant (but not a lawyer). I first met her through her work for UKOER, which I really liked because she gave us pragmatic advice that helped us release resources openly not just list of all the things we couldn’t do. Through that and other work Naomi & colleagues have created a set of really useful resources on copyright for OER (which are themselves openly licensed).

Naomi has also done some work with the Imperial War Museum from which she drew the story of Ethel Bilborough’s First World War diary. It’s there on her website so I won’t repeat here. The key lessons (to me) revolved around copyright existing from the moment of creation until 70 years after the author’s death; copyright is a property which can be inherited; ownership of the physical artifact does not necessarily mean ownership of the copyright; and composite works (the diary contained press cuttings and photos) creating more complex problems with several rights holders. All of these (and the last one especially) are relevant to modern teaching and learning resources.

In general copyright supports the copying and use of resources through permission from the  rights owner (a licence) and various copyright exceptions. However, sometimes it is necessary to fall back on a pragmatic approach of taking a reasonable risk, for example when the rights owner is not traceable.  Naomi described some interesting issues around the use of  copyright resources in teaching and learning. For example, there are exceptions to copyright for criticism, review or quotation and for teaching purposes. However these are limited in that such use must be fair dealing (I learnt this: that fair dealing/fair use is an additional limitation on an exception, not a type of exception). Fair dealing is undefined, and may not include putting materials online. Naomi described how easy it is for use of a resource under an exception to become an infringement in the context of modern teaching as the private space of teaching becomes more public. For example a resource used in lecture which is videoed, the video made public. All the more reason to be careful in the first place; all the more reason to use liberal licences such as creative commons, which are not limited to a specific scenario.

copyright pragmatics

All the way through her talk Naomi encouraged us to think about copyright in terms of being respectful of other people: giving the credit due to resource creators. She left left us with some key points of advice

  • make sure that you know the basics
  • make sure you know who can help you
  • ask when you’re not sure

fun fact

For copyright purposes, software is classed as a literary work.

 

 

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An ending, and a beginning

On 30 June 2017 I will be leaving my current employment at Heriot-Watt University. I aim to continue to support the use of technology to enhance learning as an independent consultant. I first joined Heriot-Watt’s Institute for Computer Based Learning in 1996 on a six month secondment. I was impressed that ICBL was part of … Continue reading An ending, and a beginning

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On 30 June 2017 I will be leaving my current employment at Heriot-Watt University. I aim to continue to support the use of technology to enhance learning as an independent consultant.

I first joined Heriot-Watt’s Institute for Computer Based Learning in 1996 on a six month secondment. I was impressed that ICBL was part of a large, well-supported Learning Technology Centre–which was acknowledged at that time as one of the leading centres for the use of technology in teaching and learning. You can get a sense of the scope of the LTC by looking at the staff list from around that time. Working with, and learning from, colleagues with this common interest was hugely appealing to me; so when I had the opportunity I re-joined ICBL in 1997, and this time I stayed.

In my time at Heriot-Watt I have been fortunate beyond belief to collaborate with people in ICBL and through work such as the Engineering Subject Centre (and other subject centres of the LTSN and then HE Academy), EEVL, Cetis and many Jisc projects. But things change. The LTC was dismantled. A reduced ICBL moved to be a part of the Computer part of the School of Mathematics and Computer Sciences (MACS). Funding became difficult, and while I greatly appreciate the huge effort made by several individuals which kept me in continuous employment, like many in similar roles I frequently felt my position was precarious.  I really enjoyed teaching Computer Science and Information Systems students, and I worked with some great people in MACS, but the work became more internally focused, isolated from current developments…not what I had joined ICBL for.

What next?

When Heriot-Watt announced that it planned to offer staff voluntary severance terms, I applied and was happy to be accepted. My professional interests remain the same: supporting the selection and use appropriate learning resources; supporting the management and dissemination of learning resources; open education; sharing and learning. I do this through work on resource description, course description, OER platforms, I use specific technologies like schema.org, LRMI and wordpress. I intend to continue working in these areas, as an independent consultant and with colleagues in Cetis LLP. Contact me if you think I can help you.

Photograph of a person up a flight of stairs into the open. by flickr user Allen, licensed CC:BY.
Exit, by Allen ( https://www.flickr.com/photos/78139009@N03/) Licence CC:BY. Click image for original.

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An Identifier Scheme for the Digitising Scotland Project

The Digitising Scotland project is having the vital records of Scotland transcribed from images of the original handwritten civil registers . Linking the resulting dataset of 24 million vital records covering the lives of 18 million people is a major challenge requiring improved record linkage techniques. Discussions within the multidisciplinary, widely distributed Digitising Scotland project […]

The Digitising Scotland project is having the vital records of Scotland transcribed from images of the original handwritten civil registers . Linking the resulting dataset of 24 million vital records covering the lives of 18 million people is a major challenge requiring improved record linkage techniques. Discussions within the multidisciplinary, widely distributed Digitising Scotland project team have been hampered by the teams in each of the institutions using their own identification scheme. To enable fruitful discussions within the Digitising Scotland team, we required a mechanism for uniquely identifying each individual represented on the certificates. From the identifier it should be possible to determine the type of certificate and the role each person played. We have devised a protocol to generate for any individual on the certificate a unique identifier, without using a computer, by exploiting the National Records of Scotland’s registration districts. Importantly, the approach does not rely on the handwritten content of the certificates which reduces the risk of the content being misread resulting in an incorrect identifier. The resulting identifier scheme has improved the internal discussions within the project. This paper discusses the rationale behind the chosen identifier scheme, and presents the format of the different identifiers.

The work reported in the paper was supported by the British ESRC under grants ES/K00574X/1(Digitising Scotland) and ES/L007487/1 (Administrative Data Research Centre – Scotland).

My coauthors are:

  • Özgür Akgün, University of St Andrews
  • Ahamd Alsadeeqi, Heriot-Watt University
  • Peter Christen, Australian National University
  • Tom Dalton, University of St Andrews
  • Alan Dearle, University of St Andrews
  • Chris Dibben, University of Edinburgh
  • Eilidh Garret, University of Essex
  • Graham Kirby, University of St Andrews
  • Alice Reid, University of Cambridge
  • Lee Williamson, University of Edinburgh

The work reported in this talk is the result of the Digitising Scotland Raasay Retreat. Also at the retreat were:

  • Julia Jennings, University of Albany
  • Christine Jones
  • Diego Ramiro-Farinas, Centre for Human and Social Sciences (CCHS) of the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)