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The Adjective and Adverb

Adjective: Synopsis

kalo&j Dual Termination
polu&j and me/gaj Vocabulary Feminine in -a
[Adjectival Pronouns] Examples Reading
Exercises ******** ********

Adverb: Synopsis

Vocabulary a)gaqo&j
Negatives Examples Exercises

 

Synopsis:

 

1.

 

The Greek Adjective agrees with the noun it describes in

 

GENDER: masculine, feminine, or neuter
NUMBER: singular, plural or the rare dual
CASE: nominative, accusative, genitive or dative

 
2.

 

Adjectives divide into two groups

 

(a) those like first and second declension nouns

(b) those like third declension nouns

 
3.

 

In group (a):

 

beautiful

kal-o&j (masculine) is declined like lo&g-oj word
kal-h& (feminine) is declined like a)rx-h& beginning
kal-o&n (neuter) is declined like e1rg-on deed
 

 

Following the pattern of 2nd declension nouns (for masculine and neuter) and 1st declension (for feminine)

 

the regular declension of kalo&j  -h&  -o&n

 

kalo&j kalh& kalo&n
kalo&n kalh&n kalo&n
kalou~ kalh~j kalou~
kalw~| kalh~| kalw~|
kaloi/ kalai/ kala&
kalou&j kala&j kala&
kalw~n kalw~n kalw~n
kaloi=j kalai=j kaloi=j

 

 

In the feminine singular,
those with the stem ending in a consonant decline in -h like a)rxh&
those with the stem ending in a vowel or -r decline in -a like xw&ra
 

 

i.e. kal-o&j beautiful kal-h& kal-o&n
a)ndrei=-oj brave a)ndrei=-a a)ndrei=-on
ai0sxr-o&j ugly ai0sxr-a& ai0sxr-o&n

 

 

 

4. A few adjectives (adjectives of two terminations) have no feminine form distinct from the masculine:
 

 

e.g. qeo_j a)qa&natoj deathless god
yuxh_ a)qa&natoj

 

deathless soul

 

Most of these are adjectives where the basic meaning is negated by an initial a)-
 

 

(a)n- before a vowel)

e.g. dunato&j -h& -o&n possible a)du&natoj -on impossible
a!cioj -a -on worthy a)na&cioj -on unworthy

 

 

5. a) Two contracted adjectives follow the pattern of the noun nou~j

(i.e. nou~j, nou~n, nou~, nw~| )

a)rgurou~j -a~ -ou~n silver
xrusou~j -a~ -ou~n golden
 

 

b) polu&j much, many and me/gaj great have the short forms pol-, me/g-
in the nominative and accusative singular of the masculine and neuter
 

 

All other cases of polu&j and me/gaj are declined regularly on the long stems:
  • poll-
  • mega&l-
polu&j pollh& polu&
polu&n pollh&n polu&
pollou~ pollh~j pollou~
pollw~| pollh~| pollw~|
*** polloi/ pollai/ polla&
poll
poll
poll
me/gaj mega&lh me/ga
me/gan mega&lhn me/ga
mega&lou mega&lhj mega&lou
mega&lw| mega&lw| mega&lw|
*** mega&loi mega&loi mega&la
mega&l
mega&l
mega&l

 

*** The plural endings continue as with:
  • kaloi/   -ai/   -a/ 

 


 

The Adjective: Vocabulary

 

kalo&j kalh&  kalo&n beautiful, fine
a)gaqo&j

 

a)gaqh& 

 

a)gaqo&n

 

good, brave

 

Of the same pattern are:
i9kano&j sufficient
kaino&j new
kako&j bad, base
o)rqo&j right, straight
pisto&j reliable
r(a|&qumoj lazy
sofo&j

 

wise

 


 

Feminine in -a after a stem ending in a vowel:

 

a0ndrei=oj

 

a0ndrei/a

 

a0ndrei=on

 

brave (from stem a)ndr- masculine)

 

Of the same pattern are:

 

a0rxai=oj old   (from stem a)rxh&- beginning)
dikai=oj just
qei=oj divine
me/trioj moderate
ne/oj new, young
o(moi=oj similar (to)
o#sioj holy
plou&sioj wealthy
r(a|&dioj easy

Feminine in -a after a stem ending in -r:

 

ai0sxro&j ai0sxra&  ai0sxro&n ugly, shameful (opp. of kalo&j)
 

 


 

a!kroj

 

top (of)

e)leu&qeroj free
e)xqro&j hostile
i)sxuro&j strong
makro&j long, large (cf. the contrast macrocosm / microcosm)
mikro&j short, little

Note also:

 

e3kastoj each, every
o)li/goj small
o)li/goi few
prw~toj first

 

Adjectives of two terminations (masc. / fem. and neut.):

 

a!dik-oj -on unjust
a)du&natoj -on impossible
a)qa&natoj -on immortal
fro&nimoj -on thoughtful
w)feli/moj -on useful
 

 


 

 

The following are used as adjectives or pronouns:
  • the neuter ends in -o  (not -on)
a!lloj a!llh a!llo another
 

 

These also have the article (o(, h(, to& ) before a following noun:

 

au)to&j au)th&  au)to&  self, same,
  • (also for him, her, it, them)
ou{toj au#th tou~to this
  • (man / woman / thing)
e0kei=noj e0kei/nh e0kei=no that
  • (man / woman / thing)

 

The Adjective: Examples

 

o( pisto_j dou~loj the reliable slave
i9kanh_ xw&ra sufficient land
to_ xalepo_n e1rgon the difficult task
 

 

o( dikai=oj krith&j the just judge
h( a)ndrei/a  0Antigo&nh brave Antigone
to_ qei=on dw~ron the divine gift
 

 

e9ka&sth (h( ) h(me/ra each day
oi9 o)li/goi kai\ oi9 polloi/  the few and the many
(esp. as the upper and lower classes)
oi9 prw~toi a!nqrwpoi the first humans
 

 

Zeu_j a!lloi te qeoi/  Zeus and the other gods
a!llo kai\ a!llo one thing after another
kai\ ta_ a!lla  (ta}lla) and the rest (cf. Latin et cetera)
 

 

au#th h( qea&  this goddess
e0kei=noj o( nau&thj that sailor
 

 

au)to_j o( strathgo&j the general himself
o( strathgo_j au)to&j
 

o( au)to_j strathgo&j

 

the same general

tau)ta&  (= ta_ au)ta_ ) the same things
 

 

a)qa&natoj h( yuxh&  immortal (is) the soul
 

 

o)li/goi oi9 sofoi/  few the wise
 

 

a)ndrei=oi oi9 stratiw~tai brave (are) the soldiers
 

 

makra_ me\n h( te/xnh, mikro_j de\ o( bi/oj
long is the art (of medicine), but short is life
(cf. Latin ars longa, vita brevis)

 

The Adjective: Reading

 

me/ga bibli/on, me/ga kako&n.

A big book is a big, bad thing.

 

 

kako_n fe/rousi karpo_n oi9 kakoi\ fi/loi.

Bad friends bear bad fruit.

 

 

dw~ron o)li/gon te fi/lon te.

A gift small but with love.

 

 

kai\ ei]don ou)rano_n kaino_n kai\ gh~n kainh&n,

And I saw a new heaven and a new earth,

o( ga_r prw~toj ou)rano_j kai\ h( prw&th gh~ parh~lqe,

for the first heaven and the first earth passed away,

kai\ h( qa&lassa ou)k e1stin e1ti.

and the sea is there no longer.

Rev. 21. 1-2.

 

The Adjective: Exercises

6(i)

Give the dative singular and plural of:

 

dative singular dative plural
o( sofo_j i0atro&j  
   
h( kalh_ qea&   
   
o( dikai=oj krith&j  
   
o( strathgo_j o( a)ndrei=oj  
   
polu_j po&noj  
   
to_ me/ga dw~ron  
   

Now check your ANSWERS here.

 


6(ii)

Translate:

 

We are going into the beautiful house.
 
Few run away from the evil war.
 
Many slaves work in the big fields.
 

Now check your ANSWERS here.

 


 

The Adverb

 

Synopsis:

 

An adjective belongs with a noun, describes it and agrees with it in gender, number and case:

 

o( sofo_j krith&j

the wise judge

th~j kalh~j qea~j

of the beautiful goddess

 

 

An adverb belongs with a verb, says how or when it takes place, and never changes.
An adverb can be formed from a corresponding adjective of the first form by changing
  • -oj to -wj,

comparable in English to adding -ly to the adjective:

 

 

o( krith&j kri/nei sofw~j.

The judge judges wisely.

h( qea_ a!|dei kalw~j. The goddess sings beautifully.

 

The Adverb: Vocabulary

 

a)ndrei=oj brave a)ndrei/wj bravely
ai1sxroj shameful ai1sxrwj shamefully
r(a|&dioj easy r(a|di/wj easily
 

 

The exception (also an exception in English) is:

 

a)gaqo&j

good

eu}

well

(= in a good way)

 

o( a)gaqo_j dou~loj ponei= eu}.

 

the good slave works well.

 

From this adverb linked with good are derived such English words as:
 

 

euphony from eu} fwnh& : good sound
eulogy from eu} lo&goj : spoken well of
eugenics from eu} ge/noj  : good family
 

 


 

Common adverbs with no corresponding adjective:

 

a)ei/ (or ai0ei/ ) always e1ti still, further
h!dh already nu~n now
pa&lai long ago to&te then
i1swj perhaps math&n in vain
o#mwj nonetheless ou#twj in this way

Negative adverbs:

 

ou)de/n not at all
ou)ke/ti no longer
ou)de/pote never
ou)damw~j in no way
ou)damou~ 

 

nowhere

 


**
The Adverb: Example

 

bai/nousin a)ndrei/wj ei0j ki/ndunon.

They go bravely into danger.

6(iii) Exercise:

Translate:

 

froni/mwj le/gei o( Swkra&thj.

 

 

o( i0sxuro_j dou~loj r(adi/wj fe/rei to_ a!rotron.

 

 

ou{toj o( strathgo_j ou)de/pote a)di/kwj pe/mpei tou_j poli/taj ei0j po&lemon.

 

 

eu} ponei=n a)ei\ a!meinon e0sti\n h@ ploutei=n kakw~j.

 

 

Now check your ANSWERS here.

 

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