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Third Declension Nouns and Adjectives

Awkward Nouns:
Synopsis path&r & mh&thr Familial Vocative
po&lij me/roj a!stu
basile/uj & bou~j pu~r & u#dwr ********

Third Declension Adjectives:

Synopsis sw&frwn safh&j
h(du&j PAS Using pa~j
Exercises ******** ********

 

Awkward Nouns: Synopsis:

 

Some nouns of the third declension are awkward for various reasons, but as they appear frequently they need particular attention.
The first set are nouns belonging to the family: 
  • o( path&r   father
  • h( mh&thr   mother
  • h( quga&thr  daughter

and, surprisingly,

  • h( gasth&r   stomach (the root for gastritis and gastronomy).
The -h- of the nominative shortens to -e- for the stem

(cf. o( poimh&n, tou~ poime/noj),

but in the genitive and dative singular and dative plural disappears completely.

 

father

mother

nom. sing.

o( 

path&r

h( 

mh&thr
acc. pate/ra mhte/ra
gen. patro&j mhtro&j
dat.

 

patri/ 

 

mhtri/ 

 

nom. pl. pate/rej mhte/rej
acc. pate/raj mhte/raj
gen. pate/rwn mhte/rwn
dat.

 

patra&si

 

mhtra&si

 

Note the word for man / husband  o( a)nh&r 
  • always with masculine connotations, cf. the related noun h( a)ndrei/a courage

[whereas o( a!nqrwpoj is more generally human being]

 

This has -d- for the stem and no vowel,
so its pattern is:

 

singular

 

plural

 

a)nh&r a)ndre/j
a)ndra&  a)ndra&j
a)ndro&j a)ndrw~n
a)ndri/ 

 

a)ndra&si

 

The word for woman / wife   h( gu&nh
has a third declension guttural stem gunaik- so:

 

s.

pl.

gunh&  gunaike/j
gunai=ka gunaika&j
gunaiko&j gunaikw~n
gunaiki/ 

 

gunai/ci

 


 

Addressing members of the family:
The third declension family names have a separate, short form vocative:

 

  • w} pa&ter
  • w} mh&ter
  • w} a!ner
  • w} gu&nai
  • w} qu&gater
  • w} pai= 

The second set of awkward nouns has a nominative singular ending in -ij, the accusative singular is in -in, and then the basic stem is characterised by the vowel -e- with lengthening or contraction of the endings.
This is a common form for feminine abstract nouns and should not be confused with dental nouns which have a stem in -id-.
This is the pattern:

 

nom. sing.

h( 

po&lij city
acc. po&lin
gen. po&lewj
dat.

 

po&lei

 

nom. pl. po&leij
acc. po&leij
gen. po&lewn
dat.

 

po&lesi

 

and similarly: h(  du&namij power
h(  kri/sij judgement
h(  ma&qhsij learning
h(  mi/mhsij imitation
h(  o!yij sight
h(  pi/stij trust

h( 

 

fu&sij *

 

nature

 

* Peri\ fu&sewj On Nature was a standard title for works by the Presocratics.


Also with a stem in -e- and involving contractions is the important group of third declension neuter nouns in -oj as
  •  to_ me/roj,  tou~ me/rouj

to be clearly distinguished from second declension masculine nouns in -oj
(e.g. o( lo&goj,  tou~ lo&gou).

 

This is the pattern of to_ me/roj:

 

nom. sing. to&  me/roj part
acc. to&  me/roj
gen. tou~ me/rouj
dat.

 

tw~|

 

me/rei

 

nom. pl. ta_ me/rh
acc. ta_ me/rh
gen. tw~n me/rewn
dat.

 

toi=j

 

me/resi

 

And like it are the following neuter nouns:

 

ge/noj race, family
e1poj word ta_ e1ph epic poetry
h}qoj behaviour ta_ h!qh ethics
ke/rdoj gain
kra&toj strength (cf. democracy)
ma&qoj learning
plh~qoj amount (cf. plethora)
te/loj end, final aim
ei]doj form, shape
e1toj year
qe/roj summer
kle/oj glory
o!roj mountain
pa&qoj suffering
tei=xoj

 

city-wall

 

Note also to_ a!stu town:

 

to_  a!stu
to_  a!stu
tou~ a!stewj
tw~|

 

a!stei

 

ta_ a!sth
ta_ a!sth
tw~n a!stewn
toi=j

 

a!stesi

 


The third related set of awkward nouns include:

 

  • o( basileu&j   king
  • o( bou~j   ox, cow
sing. pl. sing. pl.
basileu&j basilei=j -h~j bou~j boe/j
basilea& basilea&j bou~n bou~j
basile/wj basile/wn boo&j bow~n
basilei=

 

basileu~si

 

boi/

 

bou~si

 

  • h( nau~j ship
     
nau~j nh~ej    
nau~n nau~j    
new&j new~n    
nhi/ 

 

nau~si

 

   
  • masculine names in -hj such as o( Swkra&thj,  o( Dhmosqe/nhj:
  Swkra&thj    
  Swkra&th    
  Swkra&touj    
  Swkra&tei

 

   
Finally, note the third declension neuter nouns:
  • to_ pu~r    fire
  • to_ u#dwr  water (rare in plural):

 

pu~r u#dwr    
puro&j u#datoj    
puri/ 

 

u#dati

 

   

Third Declension Adjectives

 

Most adjectives belong to the first and second declension, but there are a few third declension adjectives.
Most are of two terminations (i.e. no distinction is made between the masculine and feminine) and follow the pattern of the corresponding nouns.
There are three main types:

 

(i) sw&frwn, sw~fron
following the pattern of nasal stems (cf. o( dai/mwn).
(ii) safh&j, safe/j
following the pattern of awkward vowel stems (cf. o( Swkra&thj).
(iii) h(du&j, h(dei=a, h(du&
following the pattern of a vowel stem in -u-, with a separate feminine form like the first declension qea&.

 

For adjectives and participles with stems in -ant- and -ont- see PAS.

 

In all these adjectives the neuter has the same form as the masculine for genitive and dative.

 

(i) sw&frwn modest, sensible
masc./fem. neut.
nom. sing. sw&frwn sw~fron
acc. sw&frona sw~fron
gen. sw&fronoj sw&fronoj
dat.

 

sw&froni

 

sw&froni

 

nom. pl. sw&fronej sw&frona
acc. sw&fronaj sw&frona
gen. swfro&nwn swfro&nwn
dat. sw&frosi (n) sw&frosi

 

Similar:

 

a!frwn rash, foolish
eu)dai/mwn happy
mnh&mwn

 

mindful (of)

 

mei/zwn  bigger and -iwn comparatives may use shorter forms in:
  • -w for -ona- (masc.acc. sing., neut. nom./acc. pl.)
  • -ouj for -onej and -onaj (masc. nom./acc. pl.).
With an -a- stem are:

ta&laj

 

ta&laina

 

ta&lan

 

unhappy

 

(with a vocative w}  ta&lan  poor wretch)

 

and
me/laj

 

me/laina

 

me/lan

 

black

 


(ii) safh&j clear
masc./fem. neut.
nom. sing. safh&j safe/j
acc. safh~ safe/j
gen. safou~j safou~j
dat.

 

safei=

 

safei=

 

nom. pl. safei=j safh~
acc. safei=j safh~
gen. safw~n safw~n
dat. safesi (n) safesi/  (n)

 

Similar:

 

a)kribh&j accurate
a)lhqh&j true
a)sqenh&j weak
a)sfalh&j unfailing
eu)genh&j of good family
dustuxh&j unfortunate
eu)tuxh&j fortunate
plhrh&j full
u(gih&j healthy
yeudh&j

 

false

 


(iii)  h(du&j pleasant  (related to h(donh& pleasure)

 

masc. fem. neut.
h(du&j h(dei=a h(du&
h(du&n h(dei=an h(du&
h(de/oj h(dei/aj h(de/oj
h(dei=

 

h(dei/a|

 

h(dei=

 

h(dei=j h(dei=ai h(du&
h(dei=j h(dei/aj h(du&
h(de/wn h(deiw~n h(de/wn
h(de/si (n)

 

h(dei/aij

 

h(de/si  (n)

 

Similar:

 

baqu&j deep
baru&j heavy
braxu&j short
eu(ru&j broad
gluku&j sweet
o)cu&j sharp
taxu&j

 

swift

 


The Adjective PAS

 

The common third declension adjective
  • pa~j, pa~sa, pa~n  whole, all

has a stem pant- in the masculine and neuter;

the feminine, because the stem ends in sigma, 
is like the first declension noun do&ca,
changing -a- to -h- in the genitive and dative singular.

 

The declension of this adjective has the same pattern as the weak aorist participle
  • lu&saj, lu&sasa, lu~san  having released.
Similarly, the adjective
  • e9kw&n, e9kou~sa, e9ko&n  with the stem e9kont- willing

has the same pattern as the present active participle

  • lu&wn, lu&ousa, lu&on  releasing
and the strong aorist participle
  • lipw&n, lipou~sa, lipo&n  having left.

Below is the declension of
  • pa~j, pa~sa, pa~n  
It means whole or all, and many English words starting with pan- are derived from it as:
  • pan-acea
  • pan-orama
  • pan-technicon
  • pan-theon
masculine

 

feminine

 

neuter

 

nom. sing. pa~j pa~sa pa~n
acc. pa&nta pa~san pa~n
gen. panto&j pa&shj panto&j
dat.

 

panti/ 

 

pa&sh| 

 

panti/ 

 

nom. pl. pa&ntej pa~sai pa&nta
acc. pa&ntaj pa&saj pa&nta
gen. pa&ntwn pasw~n pa&ntwn
dat.

 

pa~si (n)

 

pa&saij

 

pa~si (n)

 

Following are some phrases using this adjective:

 

pa&ntej te qeoi\ pa~sai/ te qe/ainai

all the gods and all the goddesses

 

pa~j o( dh~moj

all the people

 

h( pa~sa a)lhqei/a

the whole truth

 

oi9 pa&ntej

everyone

 

a#ma pa&ntej

all together

 

to_ pa~n

the whole universe

 

dia_ panto_j  (xro&nou)

for ever

 

panto_j ma~llon

more than anything

 

peri\ panto_j poiei=sqai

to value above all

 

ei]nai pa&nta panti/ 

to be all things to all men

 

nu~n u(pe\r pa&ntwn a)gw&n

now everything is at stake

 

pa&nta r(ei= 

everything is in a state of flux

 

and the famous saying of the sophist Protagoras:

 

pa&ntwn xrhma&twn me/tron e0stin a!nqrwpoj,
tw~n me\n o!ntwn w(j e1sti, tw~n de\ mh_ o!ntwn w(j ou)k e1stin.

 

Of all things man is the measure [i.e. people decide for themselves]
of the things that are - that they are, of the things that are not - that they are not.

 


Exercises:

15(i)

Put into the plural and translate:

 

 

Plural

dida&skw to_n pai=da.  
   
de/xomai to_n kh&ruka.  
   
e0rga&zomai to_ pra~gma.  
   
a#ptetai th~j o!rniqoj.  
   
mh_ r(i/pte th_n a)spi/da.  
   

Now check your ANSWERS here.

15(ii)

Write with meta& + accusative, u(po_ + genitive:

 

h( sw&frwn pai=j (the sensible child)

meta& 

u(po_ 
 

o( eu)genh_j   3Ellhn (the well-born Greek)

meta& 

u(po_ 
 

h( eu)dai/mwn mh&thr (the happy mother)

meta& 

u(po_ 
 

o_ a)lhqe\j e1poj (the true word)

meta& 

u(po_ 

Now check your ANSWERS here.

15(iii)

Write with dia& + genitive, e0n + dative:

 

h( dustuxh_j po&lij (the unfortunate city)
dia&  e0n 

 

  3Ellaj h( mega&lh pa~sa (the whole of great Greece)

dia&  e0n 

 

pa~j o( strato&j, a)sfalh_j w!n (the whole army, being safe)

dia&  e0n 
 

a)sqene\j to_  1Ilion pa~n (all of weakened Troy)

dia&  e0n 

Now check your ANSWERS here.


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