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Consonant Verbs and Nouns

Synopsis 3rd Declension Endings Guttural Stems
Guttural Nouns Labial Stems Dental Stems
Verbs in -izw Dental Nouns to_ sw~ma
Nasal Stems Nouns: -n- & -r- Exercises

 

Synopsis:

 

In discussing weak aorists the examples given ended with a vowel (-a-, -e-, -o-, -u-) before the final -w.
The aorist endings of these vowel verbs, like those of the future, begin with s-.
When there is a consonant before the final -w in the present,
then this consonant will clash with the s- of the future and weak aorist endings,
and adjustments have to be made, for example:

 

k, g, x, kt, ss (tt)

 

gutturals (throat)

 

+

 

j

 

=

 

c

 

p, b, f, pt

 

labials (lips)

 

+

 

j

 

=

 

y

 

t, d, q, z

 

dentals (teeth)

 

+

 

j

 

=

 

s

 

m, n

 

nasals (nose)

 

+

 

j

 

=

 

s drops

 

There is a similar clash with these consonants and -s- in the nominative singular and genitive plural of nouns of the third declension which have their endings added to the noun stem
  • i.e. the genitive singular without -oj

 

Third declension noun endings:

 

masculine and feminine

neuter

singular

plural

singular

plural

nom. -j -ej - -a
acc. -a -aj - -a
gen. -oj -wn -oj -wn
dat. -i -si -i -si
 

 

Guttural Stems: Verb and Noun Patterns

 

present

 

future

 

weak aorist

 

diw&kw diw&cw e1diwca I pursue
a!gw a!cw h!gagon I lead
a!rxw a!rcw h}rca I begin, rule
fula&ssw fula&cw e0fu&laca I guard

 

o(  fu&lac guard fu&lakej
fu&laka fu&lakaj
fu&lakoj fula&kwn
fu&laki fu&laci(n)
 

 

Guttural Stems: Vocabulary

 

Active verbs:

 

dida&skw dida&cw e0di/daca I teach
pra&ssw pra&cw e1praca I act
ta&ssw ta&cw e1taca I put in order
 

 

Middle verbs:

 

de/xomai de/comai e0deca&mhn I receive
eu!xomai eu!comai h)uca&mhn I pray
 

 

Guttural nouns:

 

sark- h( sa&rc sa&rkoj flesh
flog- h( flo&c flo&goj flame
falagg- h( fa&lagc fa&laggoj phalanx
salpigg- h( sa&lpigc sa&lpiggoj trumpet
nukt- h( nu&c nu&ktoj night
 

 

Labial Stems: Verb and Noun Patterns:

 

pe/mpw pe/myw e1pemya send
tri/bw tri/yw e11triya rub away
gra&fw gra&yw e1graya write
kle/ptw kle/yw e1kleya steal

 

o(  klw&y thief klw~pej
klw~pa klw~paj
klwpo&j klwpw~n
klwpi/  klwyi/ (n)
 

 

Labial Stems: Vocabulary

 

Active verbs:

 

tre/pw tre/yw e1treya I turn
bla&ptw bla&yw e1blaya I injure
kru&ptw kru&yw e1kruya I hide
 

 

Middle verbs:

 

a#ptomai a#yomai h(ya&mhn I touch
me/mfomai me/myomai e0me/myamhn I blame
 

 

There are no nouns in general use with labial stems,
grammars give these:
  • h( fle/y,  flebo&j  vein
  • o( gu&y,  gupo&j   vulture

 

 

Dental Stems: Verb and Noun Patterns

 

yeu&dw yeu&sw e1yeusa deceive
pei/qw pei/sw e1peisa persuade
sw&|zw sw&sw e1swsa save
e0lpi/zw e0lpiw~ h!lpisa hope

 

h(  e0lpi/j hope e0lpi/dej
e0lpi/da e0lpi/daj
e0lpi/doj e0lpi/dwn
e0lpi/di e0lpi/si (n)
 

 

Most dental verbs end in -azw  or -izw

 

a)nagka&zw a)nagka&sw h)na&gkasa compel
e0rga&zomai e0rga&somai (passive aorist) work
qauma&zw qauma&sw e0qau&masa wonder at
 

 

paraskeua&zomai paraskeua&somai prepare

(middle or passive aorist)

 

 

Verbs ending in -izw usually have a related noun and a contracted future, indicated by the final accent.
A contracted future has the pattern of the present tense of file/w with endings:

 

Active:

-w~

Middle:

-ou~mai
-ei=j -ei=
-ei= -ei=tai
-ou~men -ou&meqa
-ei=te -ei=sqe
-ou~si

 

-ou~ntai

 


 

e0lpi/zw e0lpiw~ h!lpisa hope (e0lpi/j)
ceni/zw ceniw~ e0ce/nisa entertain (ce/noj)
nomi/zw nomiw~ e0no&misa consider (no&moj)
pori/zw

 

poriw~

 

e0po&risa

 

provide

 

(po&roj)

 

u(bri/zw u(briw~ u#brisa insult ( u#brij)
o)rgi/zw

 

o)rgiw~

 

w!rgisa

 

make angry

 

(o)rgh& )

 

Verbs were also coined with -izw, for example:

 

filippi/zw I side with Philip (of Macedon)
e9lleni/zw I speak Greek
Mhdi/zw

 

I join the Medes

 


Dental nouns: masculine and feminine

 

a)spid- h(  a)spi/j a)spi/doj shield
 9Ellad- h(   9Ella&j  9Ella&doj Greece
paid-

o(,

h(  pai=j paido&j child
patrid- h(  patri/j patri/doj country
o)rniq-

o(  

o!rnij o!rniqoj bird
e0rwt-

o(  

e1rwj e1rwtoj love
xarit-

 

h( 

 

xa&rij

 

xa&ritoj

 

goodwill

 


Third declension dental nouns have accusative in -in rather than stem + -a when the accent is not on the last syllable,
so
  • h( e0lpi/j,  th_n e0lpi/da
but
  • h( xa&rij,  th_n xa&rin
This also happens when the stem ends in a vowel:
  • o( i0xqu&j,  to_n i0xqu&n

 

Neuter Dental Noun form:

 

body

 

singular

plural

to_ sw~ma ta_ sw&mata
to_  sw~ma ta_ sw&mata
tou~ sw&matoj tw~n swma&twn
tw~|

 

sw&mati

 

toi=j

 

sw&masi (n)

 

This is a very common noun form, for example

 

to_ ai[ma blood ai[matoj
to_ gra&mma letter, line gra&mmatoj
to_ dra~ma play dra&matoj
to_ o!noma name o)no&matoj
to_ pneu~ma breath pneu&matoj
to_ pra~gma action pra&gmatoj
to_ stra&teuma army strateu&matoj
to_ tei/xisma wall teixi/smatoj
to_ trau~ma wound trau&matoj
to_ xrh~ma

 

thing

 

xrh&matoj

 


Nasal Stems: Verb and Noun Patterns

 

[note: all have contracted future]

 

Active verbs:

 

kri/nw krinw~ e1krina judge
me/nw menw~ e1meina remain
te/mnw temw~ e1temon cut (strong aorist)
fai/nw

 

fanw~

 

e1fhna

 

show

 

a)poktei/nw a)poktenw~ a)pe/kteina kill
diafqei/rw

 

diafqerw~

 

die/fqeira

 

destroy

 

Middle verb:

 

a)pokri/nomai

 

a)pokrinou~mai

 

a)pekri/namhn

 


 

Nouns in -n- and -r-

 

with long vowel throughout:

 

o( a)gw&n tou~ a)gw~noj contest
o( xeimw~n

 

tou~ xeimw~noj

 

storm, winter

 

o(   #Ellhn tou~    #Ellhnoj Greek
o( limh&n

 

tou~ lime/noj

 

harbour

 

with shortened vowel in stem:

 

o( dai/mwn tou~ dai/monoj spirit
o( h(gemw&n tou~ h(geme/noj leader
o( poimh&n tou~ poime/noj shepherd
o( r(h&twr

 

tou~ r(h&toroj

 

orator

 


Exercises

14(i)

Give the dative singular and plural of:

 

dative singular dative plural
o( a)gaqo_j pai=j
   
to_ me/ga pra~gma
   
h( kalh_ pa&trij
   
h( deinh_ nu&c
   
o( sofo_j kh~ruc
   
to_ i0sxuro_n tei/xisma
   

Now check your ANSWERS here.

14(ii)

Complete: pro&j (+ acc.) a)po& (+ gen.) e0n (+ dat.)
       
h(   #Ellaj pro_j a)po_ e0n
to_ dra~ma pro_j a)po_ e0n
h( patri/j pro_j a)po_ e0n

Now check your ANSWERS here.

14(iii)

Put into the plural and translate:

 

singular

 

plural

 

dida&skw to_n pai=da.  
   
de/xomai to_n kh&ruka.  
   
e0rga&zomai to_ pra~gma.  
   
a#ptetai th~j o!rniqoj.  
   
r(i/pteij th_n a)spi/da.  
   

Now check your ANSWERS here

14(iv)

Put the following into the future and aorist:

 

  future aorist
diw&keij    
a!rxei    
gra&fomen    
sw&|zousi    
bla&ptw    
dexo&meqa    
me/mfontai    

Now check your ANSWERS here

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