Please Enter a Colour
Background:
Text:
Home Contents Words Glossary

Contracted Verbs

Synopsis Contracted verbs Verbs in -e-
-e- Exercises Verbs in -a- Verbs in -o-

 

Useful Question Words:

  • pou~;      where?
  • po&te;    when?
  • pw~j;     how?
  • ti/j;       who?
  • ti/;         what?
  • dia_ ti/;  why?

 

Synopsis:
 

Many verbs end their stem with a vowel before the ending

  • i.e. -ew, -aw, -ow
The vowel of the stem then contracts with the vowel of the ending.
The weaker vowel gives way to the stronger,
two short vowels form a diphthong, iota with -a- goes subscript.

 

The basic rule of contraction:

[note: -iw and -uw are not affected]

 

e a o / w
weakest middle strongest
e + e =  ei a + e = a o + e or o = ou
e + o = ou a + o = w o + ei = oi
e + ei

 

= oi

 

 

 

a + ei

 

= a| 

 

 

 

o + ei

 

= oi

 


THE CONTRACTED VERBS IN -e-

love  [futurefilh&sw]

 

file/-w e + w -contracts filw~
file/-eij e + ei -contracts filei=j 
file/-ei

 

filei=

 

file/-omen e + o - ou filou~men
file/-ete e + e - ei filei=te
file/-ousi e + ou - e filou~si
  contracts

 


 

 CONTRACTED VERB IN -atima|~j 

 

 tima|~j  honour  [future:  timh&sw]

 

tima&-w a + w = w timw~
tima&-eij a + ei = a| tima~|s
tima&-ei

 

tima~|

 

tima&-omen a + o = w timw~men
tima&-ete a + e = a tima~te
tima&-ousi

 

a + ou

 

= w

 

timw~si

 


 

THE CONTRACTED VERB IN -o-

 

show  [future:  dhlw&sw]

dhlo&-w o + w = w dhlw~
dhlo&-eij o + ei = oi dhloi=j
dhlo&-ei

 

dhloi=

 

dhlo&-omen o + o = ou dhlou~men
dhlo&-ete o + e = ou dhlou~te
dhlo&-ousi

 

o + ou

 

= ou

 

dhlou~si

 


 

The Contracted verbs in -e-: Vocabulary
Contracted verbs in -e- are the most common.
Many connect with a Second declension Noun.

 

oi0ke/w pone/w tele/w
I live in I toil I end
o(  oi]koj o(  po&noj o(  te/loj
house

 

work

 

end

 

file/w [opp.]  mise/w
I love            I hate
o( fi/loj
friend

 

o( ga&moj

wedding

h( a)pori/a

difficulty

game/w

 

I marry

 

a)pore/w

 

I am perplexed

 

h( boh&qeia

help

o( nou~j

intelligence

bohqe/w

 

I help

 

noe/w

 

I think

 

 

nose/w

I am sick

deipne/w

I dine

h(  no&soj

 

illness

 

to&  dei=pnon

 

dinner

 

strathge/w

I lead an army

poleme/w

I wage war

o(  strathgo&j

general

o(  po&lemoj

war

oi9 pole/mioi

 

the enemy

 


 

Contracted Verbs in -e-: Examples
filou~men deipnou~si
we love

 

they are dining

 

pw~j polemou~sin; po&te telei=;
how do they wage war?

 

when will it end?

 

a}ra ponei=j; pou~ oi0kou~sin;
are you working?

 

where do they live?

 

How do we finish? Where does he work?
pw~j telou~men;

 

pou~ ponei=;

 

What do you hate? Who is general?
ti/ misei=j;

 

ti/j strathgei=;

 


 

Contracted verbs in -e-: Exercises

5(i)

Translate:

 

polemei=te  
po&te strathgei=;  
a}ra nosou~sin;  
ou) misou~men to_n po&non.  
ti/ noei=j;  

Now check your ANSWERS here.

 

5(ii)

Translate:

 

su_ me\n deipnei=j, e0gw_ de\ nosw~.
 

 

ou)de\ to_n po&lemon ou)de\ ta_ o3pla ou)ke/ti filei=.

 

 

What do you like?
 

 

When do they finish?
 

 

Are we dining?
 

 

How does the general lead the army?
 

 

Now check your ANSWERS here.


 

The Contracted Verbs in -a-: Vocabulary

 

Verbs in -a- are less common than those in -e-.
They also often have a related noun, usually First Declension Feminine.

 

boa&w nika&w siga&w
I shout I conquer I am silent
h(  boh&  h(  ni/kh h(  sigh& 
shout

 

victory

 

silence

 

tima&w za&w
I honour I am alive*
h(  timh&  h(  zwh& 
life
to&  zw~|on
(living) animal

 

 

*Note the contraction of za&w  I am alive:

 

zw~ zw~men
zh~|j zh~te
zh~| zw~si

 


The Contracted Verbs in -a-: Reading

 

o( Ce/rchj nika~| tou_jLakedaimoni/ouj.
Xerxes conquers the Spartans.

 

douleu~omen kai\ sigw~men.
We are slaves and keep quiet.

 

timw~si tou_j qeou&j.
They honour the gods.

 

zw~men, a)ll' ou)k eu} zw~men.
We live, but we do not live well.

[eu~ - well, cf. eulogy, euphony]


 

The Contracted Verbs in -o-: Vocabulary

 

There are very few of these verbs.
The main ones connect with nouns and are:

o( dou~loj

slave

o(  e0leu&qeroj

free man

doulo&w

I enslave e0leuqero&w I set free

douleu&w

 

I am a slave

 

h(  e0leuqeri/a

 

freedom

 

o(  misqo&j

pay mo&noj alone
misqo&w

 

I hire

 

mono&w

 

I abandon

 

plhro&w

 

I fill

 

Note: o( nou~j mind and o( plou~j journey (by sea)
are -o- contracted nouns and have the pattern:

 

singular

plural

nou~j (for no&oj) noi=
nou~n nou~j
nou~ no&wn
nw~|

 

noi=j

 


Home Contents Words Glossary