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Answers to Unit Exercises:

The Alphabet

1(i)

Suggested English derivatives:

arithmetic bible gym drama
epistle zest helium throne
hippodrome crisis lion mono-..
nectar xenophobe horizon father/ pater
rhetoric strategist trauma hymn
fugitive character psalm hour

1(ii)

The heroes:

Agamemnon Menelaos Odysseus
Achilles Nestor Paris
Hektor Orestes Patroclus

1(iii)

The women:

Andromache Helen Iphigenia
Antigone Electra Casandra
Hecabe Medea Penelope

1(iv)

Give the complete word:

biography autobiography geography
choreography calligraphy photography

1(v)

Name the plays and characters:

Sophocles' Oedipus Tyrannus

 

Oedipus Iocaste
Iereus [Priest] Aggelos / Messenger
Creon Therapon / Servant
Teiresias Exaggelos / Servant

Chorus of Theban Elders

 

Euripides' Hippolytus

 

Aphrodite Phaedra
Hippolytus Messenger
Servant Theseus
Trophos / Nurse Artemis
Chorus of Troizen Women

The Verb

2(i)

Present Tense:

[Read aloud &] Translate into English:
 a)kou&omen  diw&kw  speu&dei
we hear/ listen I pursue he hurries
 bai/neij  eu(ri/skeij  fe/rete
you go you find you carry
 ble/pousi  e1xete  feu&gei
they look you have he flees
 gra&fomen  le/gousin  e)smen
we write they say we are
 
 a)kou&omen a)ei\ kai\ gra&fomen.
We always listen and write.
 ou) feu&gete a)lla_ speu&dete.
You do not flee but hurry.
 feu&gousi: diw&komen ga&r.
They flee; for we pursue.
 ou)k a)kou&omen: gra&fomen ga&r.
We do not listen; for we hurry.
 h(  0Aqh&nh a)kou&ei a)ll 0 ou) le/gei.
Athene does listen but does not speak.
 ble/pw a)ll 0 ou)x eu(ri/skw.
I look but do not find.
 ou) le/gousin: a}ra bai/nousin;
They do not speak; do they walk / go?
 ou) ble/pei ou)de\ gra&fei.
He does not look and does not write.
 a)ei\ diw&komen: feu&gousin ou}n.
We always pursue; and so they flee.
 o( Poseidw~n a)ei\ diw&kei.
Poseidon always pursues.

2(ii)

Translate into Greek (no accents):

he has we hurry they carry I look
e0xei speusomen ferousi blepw
we find they speak we go they are
eu(riskomen legousi bainomen ei0si
are you writing? we are going.
a}ra grafeij; bainomen.
they aren't chasing but fleeing.
ou) diwkousin a)lla feugousin.
we listen but do not speak.
a)kouomen ou)de legomen.
I hurry, for he is running away.
speudo: feugei ga~r.

 

2(iii)

 

[Read aloud &] Translate into English:
 qu&sei  pau&sousi  keleu&sw
He will offer They will stop I shall order
 paideu&sei  pau&sete  pisteu&somen
He will teach You will stop We shall trust
 o(  0Apo&llwn keleu&sei.
Apollo will order.
 h(  9Eka&bh kai\ h( Kasa&ndra qu&sousin.
Hecabe and Casandra will offer.

 

The Definite Article

3(i)

 


The Noun

4(i)

Give the genitive singular and plural of:

 

 

genitive singular

 

genitive plural

 

o( mu~qoj tou~ mu&qou, tw~n mu&qwn
     
o( oi]koj tou~ oi1kou, tw~n oi1kwn
     
o( to&poj tou~ to&pou, tw~n to&pwn
     
o( a!ggeloj tou~ a)gge/lou, tw~n a)gge/lwn
     
o( dou~loj tou~ dou&lou, tw~n dou&lwn
     
to_ nautiko&n tou~ nautikou~, tw~n nautikw~n
     

4(ii)

Complete the table below:

pro&j (+acc.)

 

a)po& (+ gen.)

 

e0n (+ dat.)

 

to_ de/ndron

 

   
pro_j to_ de/ndron a)po_ tou~ de/ndrou e0n tw~| de/ndrw| 
towards the tree

 

away from the tree

 

on the tree

 

o( to&poj 

 

   
pro_j to_n to&pon a)po_ tou~ to&pou e0n tw~| to&pw|
towards the place

 

away from the place

 

on the tree

 

oi9 a)groi/ 

 

   
pro_j tou_j a)grou&j a)po_ tw~n a)grw~n e0n toi=j a)groi=j
towards the fields

 

away from the fields

 

in the fields

 

4(iii)

Give English names derived from Greek nouns:
Moira h( Moi=ra destiny
Irene h( ei0rh&nh peace
Sophia h( sofi/a wisdom
Eunice h( ni/kh victory (with eu} in a good way)
Dorothy / Theodore to_ dw~ron, o( qeo&j gift, god
Stephan / Stephanie o( ste/fanoj crown, garland
Philip / Philipa o( i3ppoj horse (and file/w I love)
Andrew / Andrea h( a)ndrei/a courage
George / Georgina o( gewrgo&j farmer
Peter o( pe/troj stone
Daphne h( da&fnh laurel
Basil o( basilei/a kingdom
Christopher o( xri/stoj Christ (and fe/rw I carry)

 

Contracted Verbs

5(i)

Contracted verbs in -e-

Translate:

 

polemei=te You are at war.
po&te strathgei=; When does he take command?
a}ra nosou~sin; Are they ill?
ou) misou~men to_n po&non. We do not hate the work.
ti/ noei=j; What are you thinking?

5(ii)

Translate:

 

su_ me\n deipnei=j, e0gw_ de\ nosw~.
You are dining, whereas I feel sick.

 

ou)de\ to_n po&lemon ou)de\ ta_ o3pla ou)ke/ti filei=.
Neither war nor arms does he like any longer.

 

What do you like?
ti/ filei=j;

 

When do they finish?
po&te telou~sin;

 

Are we dining?
a}ra deipnou~men;

 

How does the general lead the army?
pw~j strathgei= o( strathgo&j;

 


 

Adjective & Adverb

6(i)

Give the dative singular and plural of:

 

dative singular dative plural
o( sofo_j i0atro&j  
tw| sofw| i0atrw| 

 

toij sofoij i0atroij

 

h( kalh_ qea&   
th| kalh| qea| 

 

taij kalaij qeaij

 

o( dikai=oj krith&j  
tw| dikaiw| krith| 

 

toij dikaioij kritaij

 

o( strathgo_j o( a)ndrei=oj  
tw| strathgw| tw| a)ndreiw| 

 

toij strathgoij toij a)ndreioij

 

polu_j po&noj  
pollw| ponw| 

 

polloij ponoij

 

to_ me/ga de/ndron  
tw| megalw| dendrw|

 

toij megaloij dendroij

 

6(ii)

Translate:

 

We are going into the beautiful house.
ei0j ton kalon oi0kon bainomen.
Few run away from the evil war.
o)ligon ton kakon polemon feugousin
Many slaves work in the big fields.
polloi douloi e0n toij megaloij a)groij ponousin.

6(iii)

Translate:

 

froni/mwj le/gei o( Swkra&thj.

Socrates speaks sensibly.

o( i0sxuro_j dou~loj r(adi/wj fe/rei to_ a!rotron.

The strong slave carries the plough easily.

ou{toj o( strathgo_j ou)de/pote a)di/kwj pe/mpei tou_j poli/taj ei0j po&lemon.

This general never unjustly sends the citizens to war.

eu} ponei=n a)ei\ a!meinon e0sti\n h@ ploutei=n kakw~j.

To toil nobly is always better than to get rich by base means.


 

Pronouns

7(i)

Translate:

 

ti/j poli/thj le/gei; What citizen is speaking?
le/gei poli/thj tij.

 

Some citizen is speaking.

 

ti/ dw~ron pare/xei; What gift does he offer?
pare/xei dw~ron ti. He is offering some gift.

 

Prepositions

8(i)

Translate:

 

with me met' e0mou
after them met' au)tou&j
with them met' au)tw~n
 
for her sake au)th~j e3neka
because of you dia_ se/ 
towards you pro_j u(ma~j
 
away from us a)f'  h(mw~n
against the enemy e0pi\ tou_j polemi/ouj
on horseback e0f'  i3ppou

 

Verb: middle voice

9(i)

Put these active verb forms into the middle and translate:

 

lou&w I wash lou&omai I wash myself /bathe
e0gei/rei he rouses e0gei/retai he wakes up
lu&omen we release lu&omeqa we ransom
fe/rete you carry fe/resqe you win
fai/nousi they show fai/nontai they appear

9(ii)

Translate the following, using the correct form of the middle verb given:

 

we want bou&lomai boulo&meqa
they answer a)pokri/nomai a)pokri/nontai
you receive de/xomai de/xesqe
they arrive a)fikne/omai a)fiknou~ntai
he is fighting ma&xomai ma&xetai
are you afraid? fobe/omai a}ra fobei=sqe;
he is not leading h(ge/omai ou)x h(gei=tai
we do not follow e3pomai ou)x e9po&meqa

 

Verb: past, imperfect

10(i)

Put into the present middle, and imperfect active and middle:

 

  p.m. i.a. i.m.
lu&omen luo&meqa e0lu&omen e0luo&meqa
pau&ei pau&etai e1paue e0pau&eto
fe/rousi fe/rontai e1feron e0fe/ronto
pe/mpw pe/mpomai e1pempon e0pempo&mhn
pei/qousi pei/qontai e1peiqon e0pei/qonto

10(ii)

Translate:

 

eu!xontai they pray h)u&xonto they were praying
e0rga&zomai I work ei0rgazo&mhn I was working
poreuo&meqa we march e0porou&omeqa we were marching
fobei=tai he is afraid e0fobei=to he was afraid
ei], e0ste/ you are h}sqa, h}te you were

 

Verb: past, aorist

11(i)

Translate:

 

e1lusa e0lu&sato e1lipe
he released

 

he ransomed

 

he left

 

pa&sxomen e0pa&qomen e1labej
we suffer

 

we suffered

 

you took

 

e1fugej e1maqon a)fi/keto
you fled

 

I /they learnt

 

he arrived

 

e0pau&samen to_n i3ppon

 

e0pausa&meqa tou~ pole/mou

 

we stopped the horse we ceased from the war

11(ii)

Translate:

 

we throw ba&llomen
we threw e0ba&lomen
we were mistaken h(ma&rtomen
he falls pi/ptei
he fell e1pese
he fled e1fuge
you suffered e1paqej
what did you learn? ti/ e1maqej;
what happened? ti/ e0ge/neto;

 

Imperatives & Infinitives

12(i)

Translate:

 

gra&fe tou~to. Write this.
labe\ au)to&n. Seize him.
i1sqi a)ndrei=oj. Be brave.
e0lqe\ pa&lin. Come again.
fi/lei tou_j polemi/ouj. Love the enemy.
gene/sqe sofoi/. Become wise.
ti/ma to_n poih&thn. Honour the poet.
a!koue e0kei/nou.

 

Listen to that man.

 

It is difficult to learn many things well. xalepo&n e0sti polla_ maqei=n eu}.
It is beautiful to see the trees. kalo&n e0sti i0dei=n ta_ de/ndra.
He orders us to go away. keleu&ei h(ma~j a)pobai/nein.

 

Participles

13(i)

 


 

Consonant Verbs & Nouns

14(i)

Give the dative singular and plural of:

 

dative singular dative plural
o( a)gaqo_j pai=j
tw~| a)gaqw~| paidi/  toi=j a)gaqoi=j paisi/ 
to_ me/ga pra~gma
tw~| mega&lw| pra&gmati toi=j mega&loij pra&gmasi
h( kalh_ pa&trij
th~| kalh~| pa&tridi tai=j kalai=j patri/si
h( deinh_ nu&c
th~| deinh~| nukti/  tai=j deinai=j nuci/ 
o( sofo_j kh~ruc
tw~| sofw~| kh&ruki toi=j sofoi=j kh&ruci
to_ i0sxuro_n tei/xisma
tw~| i0sxurw~| teixi/smati toi=j i0sxuroi=j teixi/smasi

14(ii)

Complete: pro&j (+ acc.) a)po& (+ gen.) e0n (+ dat.)
       
h(   #Ellaj pro_j th_n  0Ella&da a)po_ th~j  0Ella&doj e0n th~|  0Ella&di
to_ dra~ma pro_j to_ dra~ma a)po_ tou~ dra&matoj e0n tw~| dra&mati
h( patri/j pro_j th_n pa&trida a)po_ th~j pa&tridoj e0n th~| pa&tridi

14(iii)

Put into the plural and translate:

singular

 

plural

 

dida&skw to_n pai=da.  
   
de/xomai to_n kh&ruka.  
   
e0rga&zomai to_ pra~gma.  
   
a#ptetai th~j o!rniqoj.  
   
r(i/pteij th_n a)spi/da.  
   

14(iv)

Put the following into the future and aorist:

 

  future aorist
diw&keij diw&ceij e0di/wcaj
a!rxei a!rcei h}rca
gra&fomen gra&yomen e0gra&yamen
sw&|zousi sw&sousi e1swsan
bla&ptw bla&yw e1blaya
dexo&meqa deco&meqa e0deca&meqa
me/mfontai me/myontai e0me/myanto

 

Awkward 3rd decl. Nouns & Adjectives

15(i)

Put into the plural and translate:

 

 

Plural

dida&skw to_n pai=da.  
   
de/xomai to_n kh&ruka.  
   
e0rga&zomai to_ pra~gma.  
   
a#ptetai th~j o!rniqoj.  
   
mh_ r(i/pte th_n a)spi/da.  
   

15(ii)

Write with meta& + accusative, u(po_ + genitive:

 

h( sw&frwn pai=j (the sensible child)

meta_ th_n sw&frona pai=j

u(po_ th~j sw&fronoj paido&j
 

o( eu)genh_j   3Ellhn (the well-born Greek)

meta_ to_n eu)genh~   3Ellhna

u(po_ tou~ eu)genou~j  3Ellhnoj
 

h( eu)dai/mwn mh&thr (the happy mother)

meta_ th_n eu)dai/mona mh&tera

u(po_ th~j eu)dai/monoj mhtro&j
 

to_ a)lhqe\j e1poj (the true word)

meta_ to_ a)lhwe\j e1poj

u(po_ tou~ a)lhqou~j e1pouj

15(iii)

Write with dia& + genitive, e0n + dative:

 

h( dustuxh_j po&lij (the unfortunate city)
dia_ th~j dustuxou~j po&lewj e0n th~| dustuxei= 

 

  3Ellaj h( mega&lh pa~sa (the whole of great Greece)

dia_  9Ella&doj th~j mega&lhj pash~j e0n  9Ella&di th~| mega&lh| pash~| 

 

pa~j o( strato&j, a)sfalh_j w!n (the whole army, being safe)

dia_ panto_j tou~ stratou~, a)sfalou~j o!ntoj e0n panti\ tw~| stratw~|, a)sfalei= o!nti
 

a)sqene\j to_  1Ilion pa~n (all of weakened Troy)

dia_ a)sqenou~j tou~  0Ili/ou panto&j e0n a)sqenei= tw~|  0Ili/w| panti\

 

Comparison of Adjectives & Adverbs

16(i)

Complete, in the manner of the first sentence:

 

e0gw_ me\n me/gaj,  su_ de\ mei/zwn,  a)ll 0 e0kei=noj  o( me/gistoj.

 

e0gw_ me\n sofo&j, su_ de\ sofw&teroj, a)ll 0 e0kei=noj o( sofw&tatoj.
e0gw_ me\n dikai=oj, su_ de\ dikaio&teroj, a)ll 0 e0kei=noj o( dikaio&tatoj.
e0gw_ me\n a)gaqo&j, su_ de\ a)mei/nwn, a)ll 0 e0kei=noj o( a!ristoj.
e0gw_ me\n taxu&j, su_ de\ qa&sswn, a)ll 0 o( ta&xistoj.

16(ii)

Translate in two ways:

 

The father is stronger than the child.

o( path_r i0sxuro&tero&j e0stin

h@ o( pai=j.
tou~ paido&j.
The soldiers are braver than the sailors.

oi9 stratiw~tai a)ndrei/oteroi ei0si\n

h@ oi9 nau~tai.
tw~n nautw~n.
Deeds are clearer than words.

ta_ e1rga safe/stera&  e0stin

h@ oi9 lo&goi.
tw~n lo&gwn.
Nothing is sweeter than life.

ou)de\n gluku&tero&n e0stin

h@ o( bi/oj.
tou~ bi/ou.

16(iii)

Translate:

 

Helen is the fairest of women.

h(  9Ele/nh e0sti kalli/sth tw~n gunaikw~n.

 

Homer is the best of poets.
o(  3Omhroj e0stin a!ristoj tw~n poihtw~n.
Zeus is the greatest of all.
o( Zeu&j e0sti me/gistoj pa&ntwn.
Water is healthier than wine.
to_ u#dwr u(gi/esteron h@ o( oi]noj  [or tou~ oi1nou].
No one was happier than the king.
ou)dei\j h}n eu)daimone/steroj h@ o( basileu&j  [or tou~ basile/wj].

16(iv)

Translate:

 

To judge wisely krinei=n sofw~j

-- as wisely as possible   

--w(j sofw&tata.

To fight bravely ma&xesqai

--as bravely as possible   

--w(j a)ndreio&tata.

To work well eu} 

--as well as possible  

--w(j a!rista.


 

Numerals

17(i)

 


 

Passive voice

18(i)

Put into the Passive and translate:

 

fe/rei he carries fe/retai he is carried
filou~men we love filou~meqa we are loved
e0filh&samen we loved e0filh&qhmen we were loved
pe/mpei he sends pe/mpetai he is sent
pe/myei he will send pemfqh&setai he will be sent
e1pemye he sent e0pe/mfqh he was sent
kwlu&w I prevent kwlu&omai I am prevented
kwlu&somen we shall prevent kwluso&meqa we shall be prevented
diw&kousi they pursue diw&kontai they are pursued
diw&cousi they will pursue diwxqh&sontai they will be pursued
sw&|zei he saves sw&zetai he is saved
e1swse he saved e0sw&qh he was saved

18(ii)

Translate into Greek:

 

He is saved by the sailor by chance.
sw&zetai u(po_ tou~ nau&tou tu&xh|.
He was driven by the tyrant by the wind.
h)lau&neto u(po_ tou~ tura&nnou tw~| a)ne/mw|. 
They were deceived by the slaves by the storm.

e0yeu&sqhsan

u(po_ tw~n dou&lwn xeimwni/.

18(iii)

Translate into Greek and change to Passive:

 

All honour the general. pa&ntej timw~si to_n strathgo&n.

[P]

o( strathgo_j tima~tai u(po_ pa&ntwn.
The god loves the girl. o( qeo_j filei= th_n pai=da.

[P]

h( pai=j filei=tai u(po_ tou~ qeou~.
The soldiers write letters. oi9 stratiw~tai gra&fousin e0pistola&j.

[P]

e0pistolai\ gra&fontai u(po_ tw~n stratiwtw~n.
The guide led the Greeks. o( h(gemw_n h!ge tou_j  3Ellhnaj.

[P]

oi9  3Ellhnej h!gonto u(po_ tou~ h(gemo&noj.
The master released the slaves. o( despo&thj e1luse tou_j dou&louj.

[P]

oi9 dou&loi e0lu&qhsan u(po_ tou~ despotou~.
Barbarians will not rule us. ba&rbaroi ou)k a!rcousin h(ma~j.

[P]

ou)k a)rxqhso&meqa u(po_ barba&rwn.