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Numerals

Synopsis Interrogatives Table of Forms
Declensions: 1 2 3
4 Time ********

 

Synopsis:

 

The basic numerals 1, 2, 3, 4 ... are called cardinal numbers and they are adjectives; the first four are declined, and also the hundreds and thousands.

(note: 1, 2, 3 ... come from Arab numerals)

The ordinal numbers first, second, third ... are adjectives and are declined throughout like kalo&j, -h, -on or (for second and eighth) like ai1sxroj, -a, -on. Once, twice, three times are adverbs and do not change; they are distinguished (apart from a#pac) by the ending -(k)ij.

 

The cardinal numbers are represented by letters of the alphabet with a mark above right to show that the letter is being used as a number up to 999, and below left for numbers of 1,000 and above.

 

The system is a simple decimal one, so that 10 = i / , 11 = ia / and 1862 would be  / awcb.
To provide the full complement of letters needed for the system the obsolete letters Vau / Digamma (v, V) for 6, Koppa (J) for 90 and Sampi / San ( `) for 900 were used.
mu&rioi is exactly 10,000 but is also used for an indefinitely large number (cf. myriads), as mu&rioj xro&noj for an indefinitely long time.

 

[Herodotus 9.30 gives the roll-call for the different contingents in the Greek army at Plataea, a good chapter for practice in the use of numbers!]

 

Remember:

The numerals

 

1,

 

2,

 

3,

 

4

 

decline.

 

 The signs for 6, 90 and 900 are obsolete letters:
  • vau / digamma: v, V
  • koppa: J
  • sampi / san: `

 

Some useful interrogatives:

po&soi;

how many?

po&stoj;

in what order?

posa&kij;

how often?

It is notable that numbers with rough breathings often start their Latin forms with s-, hence sex, septem, semi.

 


Numerals: Table of Forms

 

Sign

 

Cardinal

 

Ordinal

 

Adverb

 

one first once
1 a / ei[j, mi/a, e3n prw~toj a3pac
2 b / du&o deu&teroj di/j
3 g / trei=j, tri/a tri/toj tri/j
4 d / te/ttarej, te/ttara te/tartoj tetra&kij
5 e / pe/nte pe/mptoj penta&kij
6 v /, V / e3c e3ktoj e9ca&kij
7 z / e9pta& e3bdomoj e9pta&kij
8 h / o)ktw& o!gdooj o)kta&kij
9 q / e0nne/a e1natoj e0na&kij
10 i / de/ka de/katoj deka&kij
11 ia / e3ndeka
12 ib / dw&deka
13 ig / trei=j kai\ de/ka
14 id / te/ttarej kai\ de/ka
15 ie / pe/ntekaideka
16 iv /, iV / e9kkai/deka
17 iz / e9ptakai/deka
18 ih / o)ktwkai/deka
19 iq / e0nneakai/deka
20

 

k /

 

ei1kosi

 

21 ka / ei[j kai\ ei1kosi

ei1kosi kai\ ei[j


30 l / tria&konta
40 m / tettara&konta
50 n / penth&konta
60 c / e9ch&konta
70 o / e9bdomh&konta
80 p / o)gdoh&konta
90

 

J /

 

e0nenh&konta

 

100 r / e9kato&n
200 s / diako&sioi -ai -a
300 t / triako&sioi -ai -a
400 u / tetrako&sioi -ai -a
500 f / pentako&sioi -ai -a
600 x / e9cako&sioi -ai -a
700 y / e9ptako&sioi -ai -a
800 w / o)ktako&sioi -ai -a
900

 

` /

 

e0nako&sioi -ai -a

 

1,000  / a xi/lioi -ai -a
2,000  / b disxi/lioi -ai -a
3,000  / g trisxi/lioi -ai -a
10,000  / i mu&rioi -ai -a
20,000  / k dismu&rioi -ai -a
30,000

 

 / l

 

trismu&rioi -ai -a

 


Note:
xilia&kij a 1,000 times (cf. polla&kij)
muria&kij

 

10,000 times

 

h3misuj - h(mi/seia - h3misu = a half

 

a!mfw - a)mfoi=n and a)mfo&teroi -ai -a are used for both.

 


Declensions:

 

Note:

ou)dei=j - ou)demi/a - ou)de/n and mhdei=j - mhdemi/a - mhde/n no-one, nothing

are the negatives of  ei[j, mi/a, e3n (1) and are declined like it.

 

ei[j

1

 

a / 
masc. fem. neut.
Nom. ei[j mi/a e3n
Acc. e3na mi/an e3n
Gen. e9no&j mia~j e9no&j
Dat.

 

e9ni/

 

mia~|

 

e9ni/

 


 

du&o

 

2

 

 

b / 

 

Nom. du&o m.f.n.
Acc. du&o
Gen. duoi=n
Dat.

 

duoi=n

 


 

trei=j

 

3

 

 

g / 

 

Nom. trei=j m.f. tri/a
Acc. trei=j tri/a
Gen. triw~n triw~n
Dat.

 

trisi/

 

trisi/

 


 

te/ttarej

 

4

 

 

d / 

 

Nom. te/ttarej m.f. te/ttara (or tess-)
Acc. te/ttaraj te/ttara
Gen. tetta&rwn tetta&rwn
Dat.

 

te/ttarsi

 

te/ttarsi

 


Expressions of time are often used with numerals, hence:

 

with the accusative for a length of time:
  trei=j h(me/raj for three days
  pe/nte nukta&j

 

for five nights

 

with the dative for exact time when:
  th|~ tri/th| h(me/ra| 

 

on the third day

 

with the genitive for time within which

i.e. an indefinite time within a stated period:

 

  triw~n h(merw~n within ten days
  th~j prw&thj nukto&j

 

during the first night

 

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