Please Enter a Colour Background: Black Blue Green Light Blue Orange Purple Red Silver Yellow White Text: Black Blue Green Light Blue Orange Purple Red Silver Yellow White
 Home Contents Words Glossary

Numerals

 Synopsis Interrogatives Table of Forms Declensions: 1 2 3 4 Time ********

 Synopsis: The basic numerals 1, 2, 3, 4 ... are called cardinal numbers and they are adjectives; the first four are declined, and also the hundreds and thousands. (note: 1, 2, 3 ... come from Arab numerals) The ordinal numbers first, second, third ... are adjectives and are declined throughout like kalo&j, -h, -on or (for second and eighth) like ai1sxroj, -a, -on. Once, twice, three times are adverbs and do not change; they are distinguished (apart from a#pac) by the ending -(k)ij. The cardinal numbers are represented by letters of the alphabet with a mark above right to show that the letter is being used as a number up to 999, and below left for numbers of 1,000 and above. The system is a simple decimal one, so that 10 = i / , 11 = ia / and 1862 would be  / awcb. To provide the full complement of letters needed for the system the obsolete letters Vau / Digamma (v, V) for 6, Koppa (J) for 90 and Sampi / San ( `) for 900 were used. mu&rioi is exactly 10,000 but is also used for an indefinitely large number (cf. myriads), as mu&rioj xro&noj for an indefinitely long time. [Herodotus 9.30 gives the roll-call for the different contingents in the Greek army at Plataea, a good chapter for practice in the use of numbers!] Remember: The numerals 1, 2, 3, 4 decline. The signs for 6, 90 and 900 are obsolete letters: vau / digamma: v, V koppa: J sampi / san: `

 Some useful interrogatives:
 po&soi; how many? po&stoj; in what order? posa&kij; how often?
 It is notable that numbers with rough breathings often start their Latin forms with s-, hence sex, septem, semi.
 Numerals: Table of Forms Sign Cardinal Ordinal Adverb one first once 1 a / ei[j, mi/a, e3n prw~toj a3pac 2 b / du&o deu&teroj di/j 3 g / trei=j, tri/a tri/toj tri/j 4 d / te/ttarej, te/ttara te/tartoj tetra&kij 5 e / pe/nte pe/mptoj penta&kij 6 v /, V / e3c e3ktoj e9ca&kij 7 z / e9pta& e3bdomoj e9pta&kij 8 h / o)ktw& o!gdooj o)kta&kij 9 q / e0nne/a e1natoj e0na&kij 10 i / de/ka de/katoj deka&kij 11 ia / e3ndeka 12 ib / dw&deka 13 ig / trei=j kai\ de/ka 14 id / te/ttarej kai\ de/ka 15 ie / pe/ntekaideka 16 iv /, iV / e9kkai/deka 17 iz / e9ptakai/deka 18 ih / o)ktwkai/deka 19 iq / e0nneakai/deka 20 k / ei1kosi 21 ka / ei[j kai\ ei1kosi ei1kosi kai\ ei[j

 30 l / tria&konta 40 m / tettara&konta 50 n / penth&konta 60 c / e9ch&konta 70 o / e9bdomh&konta 80 p / o)gdoh&konta 90 J / e0nenh&konta 100 r / e9kato&n 200 s / diako&sioi -ai -a 300 t / triako&sioi -ai -a 400 u / tetrako&sioi -ai -a 500 f / pentako&sioi -ai -a 600 x / e9cako&sioi -ai -a 700 y / e9ptako&sioi -ai -a 800 w / o)ktako&sioi -ai -a 900 ` / e0nako&sioi -ai -a 1,000 / a xi/lioi -ai -a 2,000 / b disxi/lioi -ai -a 3,000 / g trisxi/lioi -ai -a 10,000 / i mu&rioi -ai -a 20,000 / k dismu&rioi -ai -a 30,000 / l trismu&rioi -ai -a

 Note: xilia&kij a 1,000 times (cf. polla&kij) muria&kij 10,000 times
 h3misuj - h(mi/seia - h3misu = a half a!mfw - a)mfoi=n and a)mfo&teroi -ai -a are used for both.
 Note: ou)dei=j - ou)demi/a - ou)de/n and mhdei=j - mhdemi/a - mhde/n no-one, nothing are the negatives of  ei[j, mi/a, e3n (1) and are declined like it.

 ei[j 1 a / masc. fem. neut. Nom. ei[j mi/a e3n Acc. e3na mi/an e3n Gen. e9no&j mia~j e9no&j Dat. e9ni/ mia~| e9ni/ du&o 2 b / Nom. du&o m.f.n. Acc. du&o Gen. duoi=n Dat. duoi=n trei=j 3 g / Nom. trei=j m.f. tri/a Acc. trei=j tri/a Gen. triw~n triw~n Dat. trisi/ trisi/ te/ttarej 4 d / Nom. te/ttarej m.f. te/ttara (or tess-) Acc. te/ttaraj te/ttara Gen. tetta&rwn tetta&rwn Dat. te/ttarsi te/ttarsi
 Expressions of time are often used with numerals, hence: with the accusative for a length of time: trei=j h(me/raj for three days pe/nte nukta&j for five nights with the dative for exact time when: th|~ tri/th| h(me/ra| on the third day with the genitive for time within which i.e. an indefinite time within a stated period: triw~n h(merw~n within ten days th~j prw&thj nukto&j during the first night
 Home Contents Words Glossary