Please Enter a Colour
Background:
Text:
Home Contents Words Glossary

Participles

Synopsis Participle Forms Examples
Genitive Absolutes Verb Forms  

 

Synopsis:

 

Participles are adjectives which describe nouns:

(the singing girl, near the sleeping children, with the loved ones, the prisoners about to die)

 

They agree with their nouns and so have:

 

gender: masculine, feminine or neuter
number: singular or plural
case:

 

nominative, accusative, genitive or dative

 

But they also come from verbs and so have:

 

tense: present, future, aorist or perfect
voice:

 

active, middle or passive

 

The participle may be:
  • transitive with a direct object (eating supper)
  • reflexive (enjoying ourselves)
  • intransitive (sitting on the ground)
It is also used commonly with the article:

oi9 maxo&menoi

the fighters

oi9 teqnhko&tej

the dead
The tenses of participles are relative to the main verb with which they are connected, so that:
  • a present participle may translate a while clause,
  • an aorist participle a when clause,
  • a future participle with the intention of.
But a participle could also give a reason (translated since ...) or,
with kai/per,
  • a concession (although ...)

or

  • a description as a relative clause (who ...)
A noun and a participle not connected with a main verb as subject or object may stand independently as a genitive absolute with the above meanings.

 


Synopsis of Participle Forms:

Present Active - releasing

 

masculine feminine neuter
lu&-wn lu&-ousa lu&-on
lu&-onta lu&-ousan lu&-on
lu&-ontoj lu-ou&shj lu&-ontoj
lu&-onti

 

lu-ou&sh| 

 

lu&-onti

 

lu&-ontej lu&-ousai lu&-onta
lu&-ontaj lu-ou&saj lu&-onta
lu-o&ntwn lu-ousw~n lu-o&ntwn
lu&-ousi(n)

 

lu-ou&saij

 

lu&-ousi(n)

 


 

filw~n filou~sa filou~n
timw~n timw~sa timw~n
w!n (being)

 

ou}sa

 

o!n

 


Future Active - going to release

 

lu&-swn

 

lu&-sousa

 

lu~-son

 


Aorist Active - having released

 

lu&-saj lu&-sasa lu~-san
lu&-santa lu&-sasan lu~~-san
lu&-santoj lu-sa&shj lu&-santoj
lu&-santi

 

lu-sa&sh| 

 

lu&-santi

 

lu&-santej lu&-sasai lu&-santa
lu&-santaj lu-sa&saj lu&-santa
lu-sa&ntwn lu-sasw~n lu-sa&ntwn
lu&-sasi(n)

 

lu-sa&saij

 

lu&-sasi(n)

 


Present Middle - ransoming

 

masculine

 

feminine

 

neuter

 

lu-o&menoj

 

lu-ome/nh

 

lu-o&menon

 


 

All middle voice participles decline as:

[kalos]

 

kalo&j

 

kalh&

 

kalo&n

 


 

filou&menoj filoume/nh filou&menon
timw&menoj

 

timwme/nh

 

timw&menon

 

middle verb
  • poreuo&menoj  marching
poreu-o&menoj

 

poreu-ome/nh

 

poreu-o&menon

 


Future Middle - going to ransom

 

lu-so&menoj

 

lu-some/nh

 

lu-so&menon

 


Aorist Middle - having ransomed

 

lu-sa&menoj

 

lu-same/nh

 

lu-sa&menon

 


Strong aorist active and middle have present endings on an aorist stem (cf. imperative, infinitive)

 

lei/pwn leaving gigno&menoj becoming
lipw&n

 

having left

 

geno&menoj

 

having become

 

The aorist participle is not always or strictly past and so has no augment.

 


The Participle: Examples

 

lu&ontej to_n desmw&thn, a(marta&nomen.
In releasing the prisoner, we are mistaken.

 

lu&santej to_n desmw&thn, a)ph&lqomen.
Having released the prisoner, we went away.

 

lusa&menoi au)to&n, a)ph&lqomen.
Having ransomed him, we went away.

 

pau&ou  gra&fwn.
Stop writing.

 

e0pau&santo  grafo&ntej.
They stopped writing.

 

prosbai/nei i9keteu&swn.
He comes forward (intending) to plead.

 

kai/per fobou&menoi, e0diw&komen.
Although (we were) frightened we continued the pursuit.

 

oi9 to&te paro&ntej
those who were present then

 

oi9 dida&skontej those who teach

 

ta_ o!nta

 

what exists

 

ai9 didaskou~sai

 


 

Neuter singular object, adjective and participle:

 

e0la&bomen r(a|di/wj to_ a!stu o!n mikro&n.

We easily captured the town since it was small.

 

Feminine singular object, adjective and participle:

 

e0la&bomen r(a|di/wj th_n po&lin ou}san mikra&n.

We easily captured the city since it was small.

 

As genitive absolute in the neuter singular:

 

tou~ a)ste/wj o!ntoj mikrou~, r(a|di/wj e0nikh&samen.

Since the town was small, we easily won.

 

As genitive absolute in the feminine singular:

 

th~j po&lewj ou!shj mikra~j, r(a|di/wj e0nikh&samen.

Since the city was small, we easily won.

 

Masculine plural object, adjective and participle:

 

r(a|di/wj e0nikh&samen tou_j poli/taj o!ntaj o)li/gouj.

We easily defeated the citizens who were few.

 

With the participle in the dative plural:

 

proseba&lomen toi=j polemi/oij diabai/nousi to_n potamo&n.

We made an attack on the enemy, (who were / as they were) crossing the river.

 

As genitive absolute in the masculine plural:

 

tw~n poli/twn o!ntwn o)li/gwn r(a|di/wj e0nikh&samen.

Since the citizens were few, we easily won.

tw~n polemi/wn diabaino&ntwn to_n potamo&n, proseba&lomen.

While the enemy were crossing the river, we attacked.

 


Some common genitive absolute forms:

 

au)tou~ keleu&ontoj at his command
au)tou~ a)poqa&nontoj on / after his death
xeimw~noj genome/nou

 

when / because a storm arose

 

au)tw~n keleuo&ntwn at their command
au)tw~n a)poqano&ntwn on / after their deaths
nukto_j genome/nhj at nightfall
 

 

Note also:
o( me/nwn e0n th~| a)ga&ph| me/nei e0n tw~| qew~|.
The one who stays in love stays in God.

 

qeou~ qe/lontoj, dunata_ pa&nta gi/gnetai.
God willing, all things are possible. (Genitive absolute)

 

xa&rin labw_n me/mnhso, kai\ dou_j e0pilaqou~.
Having received a favour, remember it, having given it, forget it.

 


 

Synopsis of verb forms: Active and Middle:

 

Active Middle
Present

I release

lu&w lu&omai

 ransom

lu&eij lu&h|
lu&ei lu&etai
lu&omen lu&omeqa
lu&ete lu&esqe
lu&ousi

 

lu&ontai

 

Future

I shall release

lu&sw lu&somai

ransom

lu&seij lu&sh|
lu&sei lu&setai
lu&somen luso&meqa
lu&sete lu&sesqe
lu&sousi

 

lu&sontai

 

Imperfect

I was releasing

e1luon e0luo&mhn

ransoming

e1luej e0lu&ou
e1lue e0lu&eto
e0lu&omen e0luo&meqa
e0lu&ete e0lu&esqe
e1luon

 

e0lu&onto

 

Aorist (weak)

I released

e1lusa e0lusa&mhn

ransomed

e1lusaj e0lu&sw
e1luse e0lu&sato
e0lu&samen e0lusa&meqa
e0lu&sate e0lu&sasqe
e1lusan

 

e0lu&santo

 

Aorist (strong)

endings as imperfect:

 

I left

e1lipon e0geno&mhn

became

e1lipej e0ge/nou
e1lipe e0ge/neto
e0li/pomen e0ge/nomeqa
e0li/pete e0ge/nesqe
e1lipon

 

e0ge/nonto

 


Infinitive, Participle and Imperative

 

active middle
Present Infinitive: to release lu&ein lu&esqai
Aor. (wk) to release, ransom (now) lu~sai lu&sasqai
Aorist (str)

 

to leave, become (now)

 

lipei=n

 

ge/nesqai

 

Present Participle: releasing lu&wn luo&menoj
Aor. (wk) after releasing lu&saj lusa&menoj
Aorist (str)

 

after leaving, becoming

 

lipw&n

 

geno&menoj

 

Present Imperative: release lu&e, -ete lu&ou, -esqe
Aorist (wk) release, ransom (now) lu~son, -sate lu~sai, -sasqe
Aorist (str)

 

leave, become (now)

 

li/pe, -ete

 

genou~, -e/sqe

 

Home Contents Words Glossary