(Rethinking University Teaching, Diana Laurillard).
Laurillard developed a model of teaching with aim of applying it primarily to
the use of technology in higher education.
- Learning (at HE level at least) is about what she calls ``second order''
expriences of the world. It's not enough just to observe and experience the
world; you have to examine other people's experiences, arguments and models.
- Learning therefore involves mapping between experiences of the world, and
these descriptions and arguments:
- relating knowledge to experience; theory to practice; adjusting
descriptions to fit experience;
- From this she proposes that learning should be viewed as dialogue between
teacher and student, operating at level of descriptions, with certain
- Teachers and students conceptions should be accessible to the other.
- Teacher and students must agree learning goals and task goals.
- Teacher must provide environment within which students can act on,
generate and receive feedback on descriptions appropriate to topic goal.
- Teacher must use feedback on students conceptions to revise focus of
- Teacher must provide feedback to students based on their tasks and
- Teacher should support process where students relate tasks and experiences
to the topic and topic goals.
(Diagrams from Russ Pennell;
Laurillard's model emphasises the interactions that take place between
teacher and student, and between experience and theory.
Laurillard analyses both types of teaching/learning, and types of learning
technology in terms of which of these types of interaction are supported.
Similarly different uses of technology are analysed (as given in table)
- Simulations allow feedback and interaction at the experiential level.
- Hypertext allows limited interaction at conceptual level.
- "Tutorial simulations'' potentially provide for all types of interaction.
If a particular type of program doesn't provide for all the types of
interaction, Laurillard would argue that it must be provided for in other
aspects of the teaching situation.
- Both models emphasise the role of dialogue and interaction; including
interaction with the subject matter via tasks.
- Both provide a way of categorising software, and identifying gaps in the
types of interaction that a teaching scenario provides.
- So both can provide us with guidance on how to use educational software,
and on the elements that should be included if teaching is to be primary via