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Ph.D. thesis: Junyu Dong

Three-dimensional Surface Texture Synthesis
Heriot-Watt University, 2003.
Entire Thesis PDF


Texture synthesis has been extensively investigated by both computer vision and computer graphics communities during the past twenty years. However, the input and output are normally 2D intensity texture images. If the subjects are 3D surface textures (such as brick, woven or knitted textiles, embossed wallpapers etc.), these 2D synthesis techniques cannot provide the information required for rendering under other than the original illumination and viewpoint conditions. The aim of this thesis therefore is to develop inexpensive approaches for the synthesis of 3D surface textures. Few publications are available in this research area.

We first introduce an overall framework for the synthesis of 3D surface textures. The framework essentially combines surface representation methods with 2D texture synthesis algorithms to synthesise and relight new surface representations. Then we investigate five low-dimensional methods, namely the 3I, Gradient, PTM, Eigen3 and Eigen6 methods, for extracting representations from a set of images of the 3D surface texture sample. The surface representations can be relit to generate new images under arbitrary lighting directions by linear combinations. These methods are quantitatively assessed by comparing the original and relit images. The results show that the Eigen6 produces the best performance.

We select a 2D texture synthesis algorithm which is then extended into multi-dimensional space to use the five surface representations as input. In this way, we develop five approaches for the synthesis of 3D surface textures. The synthesised results are compatible with computer graphics systems and can be used in real-time rendering applications. The five synthesis approaches are qualitatively assessed by employing psychophysical experiments and non-parametric statistics. The results show that the two low-dimensional methods, the Gradient and Eigen3, on average offer as good a performance as of any of the other methods and incur low computational cost.


Table of Contents

Preliminary Pages (chapter0.pdf)

Chapter 1 Introduction (chapter1.pdf)

Chapter 2  Literature Survey (chapter2.pdf)

Chapter 3 Framework (chapter3.pdf)

Chapter 4 Surface Texture Representations for Relighting (chapter4.pdf)

Chapter 5 Synthesis Algorithms (chapter5.pdf)

Chapter 6 Synthesis and Relighting (chapter6.pdf)

Chapter 7 Conclusion and Discussion (chapter7.pdf)

Appendix (appendix.pdf)

References (references.pdf)


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